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School
University of Toronto Scarborough
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures Chapter24 Chapter describes procedures used to help people overcome fears and anxietyrelated disordersFear and anxiety reduction procedures are based on principles of operant and respondent conditioning so they address both types of behavior involved in fear and anxiety problems Examples of Fear and Anxiety Reduction Overcoming Trishas Fear of Public SpeakingTrisha had never done a class presentation and when she thought about itgot nervousTrisha decided to see a psychologist about fear of talking in front of the class because she didnt want to experienced the same unpleasant fear reaction in the futurePsychologist first taught her relaxation exercisesuse to relax when she experienced nervousnessTrisha was successful as she had to give the talk to more and more friends in an empty classroom as she practiced her relaxation exercise Overcoming Allisons Fear of SpidersVisited the psychologist for the help for an intense fear of spidersReported intense fear reactions when she saw a spiderrapid heart rate muscle tension sweating upset stomach and nausea flushed face lightheadednessStarted by assessing Allisons fear jar with spider on a tablePsychologist began treatment by teaching relaxation exercises to Allison Allison and psychologist continued this process using the relaxation exercises and gradually approaching spiderDefining Fear and Anxiety ProblemsImportant to provide operational definitions of the behaviors involvedFear is composed of both operant and respondent behaviorperson is afraid of a particular stimulus or stimulus situationWhen the stimulus is present person experiences unpleasant bodily responses autonomic nervous system arousal and engages in escape or avoidance behaviorThe bodily responses are respondent behaviors we call Anxiety Autonomic nervous system arousal involved in anxiety is an establishing operation that makes it more likely that the person will engage in escape or avoidance behavior at that timeMost problems that we would label as fears or anxiety disorders are characterized by a combination of respondent behaviorbodily response of anxiety is elicited by a particular CS and operant behavior in which escape of avoidance behaviors are reinforced by removal of the feared stimulus and reduction in the unpleasant anxietyProcedures to Reduce Fear and AnxietyNumber of behavior modification procedures are used to help people overcome problems of fear or anxietyProcedures involve relaxation training systematic desensitization and invivo desensitizationbased on principles of respondent conditioning operant conditioning or combination of the twoRelaxation TrainingRelaxation training procedures are strategies that people use to decrease the autonomic arousal that they experience as a component of fear and anxiety problems
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