Textbook Notes (362,790)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB45H3 (1,056)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 15 Differential ReinforcementDifferential reinforcement procedures involve applying reinforcement and extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behavior or to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviorThree types of differential reinforcement proceduresA Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior DRAB Differential Reinforcement of other behavior DROC Differential reinforcement of low rates of responding DRL Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior DRABehavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviorsDesirable behavior reinforced each time it occursincreased future probability of the behaviorUndesirable behaviors the interfere with the desirable behavior is not reinforcedDecrease in the behaviorCombines reinforcement for desirable behavior and extinction of undesirable behavior Getting Mrs Williams to Be Positive Mrs Williams nursing home for about a yearwhen she saw a nurse she immediately started to complain about food her room patients noise and arthritisNurses were told by the psychologist to do three thingsA Whenever Mrs Williams said something saw something positive to her immediatelyB Whenever Mrs Williams said anything positive nurse should smile and listen activelyC When Mrs Williams started to complain nurse was the excuse herself and either leave the room or become too busy to listen at that time Matter of weeks Mrs Williams says more positive things and very little complainingPsychologist decided that the nurse should increase their attention when Mrs Williams said positive things to reinforce this behaviorIn addition Mrs Williams did not get the nurses attention when she complainedNurses used reinforcement and extinction two principles involved inDRA When to Use DRAProcedure for strengthening a desirable behaviorDesirable behavior must be occurring atleast occasionally if you are to reinforce itHowever if procedures such as shaping or prompting are used to initially to evoke the behavior DRA may be then used to strengthen and maintain the behaviorSteps to Use DRA 1 Define the desirable behavior 2 Define the undesirable behavior 3 Identify the Reinforcerobserve the person and note which activities heshe pursues ask them questions Another option is to try out a variety of different stimuli and see which ones are reinforcersPreference Assessmentsingle stimulus assessment paired stimulus assessment and multiple stimulus assessmentTo determine that the item did in fact function as a reinforcer you would deliver it contingent on a behavior and show that the behavior increasedReinforcer AssessmentSingle Stimulus Assessment Each potential reinforcer is presentedAfter each stimulus is presented numerous times researcher calculates the percentage of times that the individual approached each stimulus to indicate which stimuli are likely to be reinforcersPaired Stimulus Assessment aka forcer choice or paired choice procedurestwo potential reinforcers are presented to the individual and the researcher records which stimulus the individual approaches
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