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PSYB45H3 (1,056)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

CHAPTER FIFTEEN DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT What are the three differential reinforcement behaviours that are usedThe three procedures are DRA DRO and DRL DRA DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOUR This behavioural procedure is used to increase the frequency of a desirable behaviour and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviours The desirable behaviour is reinforced each time it occursyou reinforce the behaviours that you want to keep and you extinct the behaviours that you wish to diminish Describe the situation of Mrs Williams In the case of Mrs Williams she was much more likely to complain when a nurse was present and this got her the nurses attention When she said positive things she got attention but she didnt get attention when she said negative things WHEN TO USE DRAYou must determine if you want to increase the rate of a desirable behaviour if the behaviour is occurringleast occasionallyand if you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the occurrence of the behaviour DRA can be used to strengthen and to maintain behaviours such as shaping or prompting HOW TO USE DRA What are the steps to use DRA effectively 1 Define the desirable behaviour 2 define the undesirable behaviours 3 identify the reinforceroften may be specific to the person that you are working with you can use the reinforcer that is currently maintaining the undesirable behaviour or you can observe the person and note which activities or interests she or he pursues or you can specifically ask people what they like doing what do they enjoy etc or they can try out a variety of different stimuli and see which ones functionor you can make each potential reinforcer contingent on an operant response 4 Reinforce the Desirable behaviour immediately and consistently5 Eliminate reinforcement for the Undesirable Behaviours 6 Use intermittent reinforcers to maintain target behaviours 7 Program for Generalization
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