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Chapter 22

Chapter 22

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 22 The Token Economya BM program in which conditioned reinforcers are used systematically to strengthen the desirable behaviours of individuals participating in educational or treatment programspoint gainreinforcement procedurepoint lossresponse cost procedure negative punishmentDefining Token Economyopurposestrengthen clients desirable behaviour that occur too infrequentlydecrease their undesirable behaviours in a structured treatment environmenteducational settingotokensomething delivered to a person immediately after a desirable behaviouraccumulated by the personlater exchanged for backup reinforcerschosen bc they are knjown to be powerful reinforcers for the clients in the treatment environmentbc its paired with other reinforcers it becomes a conditioned reinforcer that strengthens the desirable behaviour it followsoEssential components of token economythe desirable TBs to be strengthenedthe token to be used as conditioned reinforcersthe backup reinforcers to be exchanged for the tokensa reinforcement schedule for token deliverythe rate at which token are exchanged for the backup reinforcersa time and place for exchanging tokens for backup reinforcersoptional a response cost componentin which the undesirable TBs to be eliminated are identified together with the rate of token loss for each instance of these behavioursImplementing a Token EconomyoDefining the TBsidentify and define the desirable behaviours to be reinforcednature will vary depending on the ppl and the treatment environmentmain criterionthey are socially significant or meaningful for the ppl involved in the progammake definitions clear specific and objectiveensure clients know what behaviours are expected and that change agents can record and implement reliablyoIdentifying the Items to Use as Tokensmust be something tangible that can be delivered immediatelymust be practical and convenient for the change agent to carry and disperse in the environment the behaviours occurin a form that clients can accumulate and in most cases carry with themsome cases clients can accumulate but not keep them in their possessionoie checkmarks on the wall poker chips in a containershould not be available from any source other than the change agentmake sure clients dont steal tokens from one another or from change agentsie counterfeiting tokens acquiring tokens from other sources withinoutside the programoIdentifying Backup Reinforcerstokens acquire their effectiveness as conditioned reinforcers bc they are paired with the backup reinforcerstherefore the effectiveness of a token economy depends on the backup reinforcersbackupreinforcers must be chosen specifically for the ppl in the treatment programmay include
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