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Canada (161,540)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
zachariah (4)
Chapter 21

Chapter 21

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
zachariah
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 21 Habit Reversal Procedureshabit reversal procedures o implemented by a person with a habit behaviour o used to decrease the frequency of undesirable habit behaviours o habit behaviour often do not interfere to any great extent with the persons social functioningmore an annoyance to the person or to significant others in the persons lifehowever can become extreme and lead to negative perceptions of the person or a decrease in the persons social acceptabilitymay seek treatment seen as habit disorderExampleso nail biting o headsnappingrolling o stutteringDefining Habit Behaviours o types of habit behavioursNervous Habitsinvolve repetitive manipulative behavioursie nail biting twirlingstroking hair moustachebeard tapping a pencil chewing a pen cracking knuckles thumb sucking etcbelieved to be most likely to occur when person experiences heightened nervous tensiontypically do not serve any social function for the person o ie they are not reinforced by others o believed to diminish nervous tension o some may serve a selfstimulatory functioncan occur while other voluntary functional activities are occurringmost cases involve use of the handsmay also involve oral behaviours o lipbiting bruxism clenching of lower and upper teethmost dont cause problems unless extreme frequencyintensitybodyfocused repetitive behaviour problems o nervous habits that result in physical damage or negative social evaluationsMotor and Vocal Ticsmotor tics o repetitive jerking movements of a particular msl group in the body o usually involves msls in the neck or faceie movements of the head forward backward side rotating twisting neckie facial ticssquinting forceful blinking eyebrowraising grimacing corner of mouth is pulled back etcmay also involve shoulders arms legs or torsoshoulder raising jerking the arm to the side torso twisting etc o believed to be associated with heightened msl tensionsometimes development is related to an injury or an event that increases the tension in a msl groupbut tic mvmts continue to occur after injuryevent has passed o not uncommon for children to develop simple motor tics and then to grow out of them o only a problem when they are longstanding or extreme in frequencyintensityoften seek treatmentvocal tics o repetitive vocal sound that does not serve a social function o ie clearing throat coughing o Tourettes disordera tic disorder involving multiple motor and vocal ticsalong with other tic disorders are believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic and neurobiological factors as well as environmental eventsdiagnosis if 2 tics including at least one vocal tic occurs for at least 1 yrconsidered a lifelong disorder with an onset in childhoodStutteringa type of speech dysfluency when a persono repeats words or syllables o prolongs the sound of a word or syllable o blocks on a word makes no sound for a period of time while trying to say a wordmay occur in young children when first learning a language o however most grow out of ito sometimes persists in various degrees of severitysome barely noticeablesome it interferes with speech production
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