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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 11 ChainingEstablishing operationincentive to make reinforcement more favorableTask analysisObserve competent person engage in task Ask an expert Perform task yourself and record each component responsesbest way DEach step to task analysis has a S and response Backward chaininguse prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain first by starting at last behavior the learner complete the chain on every learning trialAlways use least intrusive prompt necessary to get behaviour to occur Praise at each stage becomes reinforce for responsemakes the outcome of each step a Dconditioned reinforce as well as the Sthe next response DForward chainingpresent first S prompt correct response provide reinforcer then fade prompts Duntil first response is engaged without any prompts when S is presented After first response creates Dsecond S prompt second response and provide reinforcer after it occurs Must reinforce after each response because do not get natural reinforcer at the end of the chain until you train last component With backward chaining once learner exhibits all behaviors eventually switch from continuous reinforcement schedule to intermittent reinforcement schedule to maintain behaviour Artificial reinforcers are used until last component of the chain is taught Total task presentationcomplex chain taught as single unit total task completed in each learning trialGraduated guidanceuse handoverhand guidance to lead learner through the task provide less and less assistance and shadow learners hand as learner completes the task Shadowing prevents errors andshould be done a number of times Fade physical guidance to shadowing then fade shadowing Chapter 12 Behavioral Skills Training BST D1 Modelingcorrect behavior demonstrated models behaviour becomes S for imitationModel exhibits correct behavior resulting in successful outcome reinforcer Relativitymodel resemble target audience Complexity of model behaviour appropriate to developmental ability level of the learner Learner has to pay attentionD Modeled behaviour must occur in proper context in response to S Repetition Opportunity to rehearse imitate2 Instructionsdescribe appropriate behaviour Presented at understandable level Instructions delivered by someone with credibility1
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