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Chapter 4

Behaviour Modification - Chapter four detailed notes

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 4 - Reinforcement What is Reinforcement? The process in which a behavior is strengthened by the immediate consequence that reliably follows its occurrence. When a behavior is strengthened it is more likely to occur again in the future. (Thorndike, cat in cage - law of effect). Getting to the food was the consequence that reinforced (strengthened) the cat's behavior of hitting the lever with a paw. Another example from B.F Skinner (rat presses the lever = response...and immediately food is presented = the consequence. The outcome is that the rat is more likely to pres the lever in the future. 1) The occurrence of a particular behavior 2) is followed by an immediate consequence 3) that results in the strengthening of the behavior. Operant Behavior: A behavior that is strengthened through the process of reinforcement Reinforce: The consequence that strengthens an operant behavior Example table 4.1 pg 76 + When the occurrence of a behavior is reinforced it increases in frequency over time. Other dimensions of behaviour may also increase as a function of reinforcement. Positive vs. negative reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: 1) The occurrence of a behavior 2) is followed by the addition of a stimulus (a positive reinforce) or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus 3) which results in the strengthening of the behavior Negative Reinforcement: 1) The occurrence of a behavior 2) is followed by the removal of a stimulus (an aversive stimulus) or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus 3) which results in the strengthening of the behavior It is an object or event that can be detected by our senses, having an influence on the person. Object or event may be a feature of the physical or social environment. + Negative reinforcement like positive reinforcement increases or strengthens behavior... on the other hand punishment decreases or weakens a behavior. Examples of both reinforcement on page 76 table 4.1 Social vs. automatic reinforcement What is Social Reinforcement? When a behavior produces a reinforcement consequence through the actions of another person. Ex, social positive reinforcement is if you ask friends to www.notesolution.com bring you the bag of chips. Ex, social negative reinforcement is if you ask your roommate to turn down the TV when it’s too loud. What is Automatic reinforcement? When the behavior produces a reinforcing consequence through the direct contact with the physical environment. Ex, automatic positive reinforcement would be if you go to the kitchen to get the bag of chips yourself. Ex, automatic negative reinforcement if you turn the TV down when it’s too loud yourself. What is the Premark Principle? A type of positive reinforcement involving to engage in a high probability behavior (playing) as a consequence of a low probability behavior (homework). Ex the opportunity to play after finishing homework reinforces the behavior to do homework. Escape and avoidance behaviors Escape Behavior: occurrence of the behavior results in the termination of an aversive stimulus that was already present when the behavior occurred. O the person escapes aversive stimulus by engaging in a particular behavior. Avoidance behavior: the occurrence of the behavior prevents the presentation of an aversive stimulus. So the person avoids the aversive stems by engaging in a particular behavior, and that behavior is strengthened. A warning stimulus often signals the occurrence of an aversive stimulus and person engages in an avoidance behavior when warning is present. Rat example: escape = (response) shock is given rat jumps to other side and (consequence) the rat escapes from shock. ( Outcome) The rat is more likely to jump in the future. Avoidance = (response) tone is present rate jumps to other side. (Consequence) rat avoids the electric shock. (Outcome) rat is more likely to jump to the other side in the future when a tone is present. Conditioned and unconditioned reinforces Unconditioned reinforces : natural reinforces that contribute to our survival, they function as reinforces the first time they are presented to most human beings no prior experience with these stimuli is needed for them to function as reinforcers. Sometimes called primary reinforces. Ex natural positive reinforce is food and water. Ex natural negative reinforce is escape from the cold or heat. Conditioned reinforces: also called secondary reinforces, it is a stimulus that was once neutral but can become an established reinforce only if they are paired with unconditioned or already established conditioned reinforces. Ex parents attention because most children’s attention seeking involves food. Ex money, because it can buy many conditioned and unconditioned reinforces, when money is no longer used for buying it is not considered a conditioned reinforce. Factors that influence the effectiveness of reinforcement www.notesolution.com 1) Immediacy: For a consequence to be most effective as a reinforce is hold ovule immediately after the behavior o
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