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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 11 ChainingBehavioral stimulusresponse ChainA behavioral chain consists of a number of individual stimulusresponse components that occur together in a sequence D Each response except the last produces the Sfor the next response but the last is D followed by reinforcement Each Sin the chain is a conditioned reinforcer for the previous stDresponse other than the 1 SEx Behavioral chain of getting a piece of gumD1 S1 pack of gum in your pocketR1 reach into your pocketD2 S2 your hand in your pocketR2 pull out the pack of gumD3 S3 pack of gum in your handR3 pull out one stick of gumD4 S4 one stick of gum in your handR4 unwrap stick of gumD5 S5 unwrapped gum in handR5 put gum in mouthReinforcer chewing the gumStimulusResponse ChainSimilar to a Behavioral ChainTask AnalysisThe process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulusresponse components is called a task analysis3 Different Ways to Conduct a Task Analysis1 Perform the task yourselfrecord each of the component responses2 Observe a competent person engage in the taskbehavior 3 Ask an expert one that performs the task wellSome examples of complex task analyses that have been developeddemonstrated by researchers are hygiene tasks cleaning procedures athletic skills specific employment skillsTEACHING BEHAVIORAL CHAINSChaining ProceduresStrategies for teaching complex tasks behavioral chains are called chaining procedures 3 types of chaining procedures 1 Forward Chainingsimilar to backward chaining in that you teach one component of the chain at a timethen chain the components together and you use promptingfading to teach the behavior associated the Discriminative Stimulus at each step in the chain The difference bw BackwardForward chaining is that in Backward you teach the last step to the first and in Forward you teach from first to last then combine them together On each trial the last step is reinforcedDS1 R1REINFORCERDDS1 R1 S2 R2 REINFORCERDDDS1 R1 S2 R2 S3 R3 REINFORCER2 Backward Chainingan intensive training procedure typically used with learners with limited abilities In this type of chaining you use promptingfading to teach the last behavior in the chain first By starting with the last behavior the learner completes the chain on every learning trialD S3 R3REINFORCERDD S2 R2 S3 R3 REINFORCERDDDS1 R1 S2 R2 S3 R3REINFORCER3 Total Task Presentationas opposed to BackwardForward where the behaviors are taught in parts in this type of chaining the chain of behavior is taught as 1 single unit Total task is completed in each learning trial Fade to shadowingDDDS1 R1 S2 R2 S3 R3REINFORCERGraduated GuidanceUsing handoverhand guidance to lead the learner through the task Over trials you gradually provide lessless assistance and begin to shadow the learners handOTHER CHAINING PROCEDURESWritten Task AnalysisTrainer presents learner with a list of the component behaviors in their proper sequence and the learner uses the list to perform the task correctly Ex When buying furniture from IKEA you have to read the instructions to build itPicture PromptsYou take pictures of the outcome of each behavior or of someone engaging in each behavior in the task The pictures are then used to prompt the learner to engage in the behaviors in the proper sequenceReciting SelfInstructionsLearners can also be guided through a complex task by means of selfgenerated verbal prompts also called selfinstructions
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