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CH 14 + 15.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
CH.14: Applying Extinction - To use extinction,you must first identifythe reinforcer thatmaintainstheproblem behavior and theneliminate it.A behaviorthatisnolonger reinforced willdecreasein frequency and stop. Using Extinction to Decrease a Problem Behavior 1. Collecting Data to AssessTreatment Effects - You must record the prblm behaviorbeforeand after theuseoftheextinctionprocedureto determine whether thebehavior decreased when extinctionwasimplemented. - You will need a behavioral definition oftheprblmbehaviortobedecreased,areliabledata collection method, a baseline assessment todetermine theleveloftheprblmbehavior beforethe use of extinction,data collection inallrelevant settingsaftertreatmentto determine whether thebehavior decreased andwhether generalizationoccurred,and continueddata collection over timetoassessthemaintenanceofbehaviorchange. 2. Identifying the Reinforcer for theProblemBehaviorthroughFunctionalAssessment - Identify the specific reinforcer forthe prblmbehaviorsothtyoucan eliminate itinan extinction procedure. There canbemorethanreinforcer bydifferent people. 3. Eliminating the Reinforcer after EachInstance ofthe ProblemBehavior - Have you identifiedthe reinforcer? Failure toeliminate theparticular stimulusorevent that functionsasthe reinforcer for theprblmbehaviorisfailuretoimplementthe extinction procedure correctly. - Extinctionfollowing positive reinforcement:when abehaviorispositively reinforced, extinction meansthe person no longer getsthepositivereinforcer followingthebehavior; Extinctionfollowing negative reinforcement: when abehaviorisnegativelyreinforced, extinction meansthe person no longer escapesfromtheaversivestimulusfollowingthe behavior. The variation of extinction iscalled escape extinction - Can you eliminate the reinforcer? Thechangeagent hastocontrolthereinforcer (parent, teacher,staff member,nurse, etc.),ifthechangeagent hasnocontrolover thereinforcer, extinction can’t be implemented. - Is extinction safe to use? It isimportant todeterminewhether extinctioncould resultin harm to the person exhibiting theproblembehavioror toother peopleintheimmediate environment.To provideescape often requiresphysicalguidance throughthetask,which may be difficult or impossible if you’reworkingwithan adult whophysicallyresiststhe guidance in which otherfunctionalproceduresshould beused instead ofextinction. - Can extinction burst (escalation ofthe problembehavior)be tolerated? Extinction burst isin which the behavior increases in frequence,duration,orintensity,ornovelbehavioror emotional responses occur.If youpredict thechangeagent willbeunabletopersist in withholding the reinforcer duringan extinctionburst,or ifyoucan’t prevent harm duringan extinction burst, an extinction procedureshould notbeused. - Can consistencybe maintained? Forextinction tobeimplemented correctly,thereinforcer must never follow the problem behavior whichmeansthtallpplinvolved in thetreatment must be consistent andeliminate thereinforcingconsequence eachtimethe problem behavior occurs.Allchange agentsmustbetrained tousetheprocedurecorrectlyto ensure consistently in implementing an extinctionprocedure.Thechangeagentsmust receiveclear instructionsto be consistent and arationaleexplainingwhyconsistencyis important. Taking Account of theSchedule of Reinforcement before Extinction - The schedule of reinforcement ineffect for theproblembehaviorbeforethe use of extinction affects therate at whichthebehaviordecreasesduringextinction - When the problem behavior isreinforced onacontinuousschedule,extinction often is more rapid.When the problem behaviorismaintained byan intermittentreinforcement schedule, the problem behavior islikelytodecreasemore graduallyduringextinction - It isimportant to determine the reinforcement schedulesothtyoucan anticipate therate of decrease inthe problem behavioronceextinctionisimplemented. - Behavior isresistant to extinction after intermittent reinforcement.Toextinct it, implement the continuousreinforcement schedulefor abriefperiod oftime. Reinforcing Alternative Behaviors - An extinction procedureshould alwaysbeused inconjunction withareinforcement procedure. The extinction proceduredecreasesthefrequencyoftheproblembehaviorand the reinforcement procedure increasesan alternativebehaviortoreplacetheproblem behavior. - When an alternative behavior tht servesthesame function orresultsin the same consequence asthe prblm behaviorhad done,it islesslikelythttheproblem behaviorwill occur again after extinction (spontaneousrecovery) Promoting Generalization and Maintenance - Generalization of the behavior changeafter theuseofextinction meansthttheprblm behavior will stop (and the alternativebehaviorwilloccur)inallrelevantcircumstance. - Maintenance meansthtthe behaviorchangewilllast over time.Topromote generalization,extinction must beimplementedconsistentlybyallchangeagentsand must be implemented inallcircumstancesinwhichbehavior changeisexpected. - To promote maintenance of the behaviorchange,itisimportant toimplement the extinction procedure after the initialsuppression ofthebehaviorwhenever theproblem behavior occursagain.Inaddition,theconsistentreinforcement ofan alternativebehavior tht isfunctionally equal to the prblmbehaviorpromotesgeneralizationand maintenance. Research Evaluating the Use of Extinction - Rekersand Lovaasusedextinctiontodecreaseinappropriate genderrolebehaviorina5 year old boy,used reinforcement ofalternativebehaviorsand extinction. - Pinkston, Reese and Baer and France and Hudsonused extinction todecreaseproblem behaviors maintained bypositive reinforcement. - Sensory extinction isa proceduralvariation ofextinction thtisused for automaticpositive reinforcement, when thereinforcer forthe behaviorisnon-socialand involvesthesensory stimulation producedbythe behavioritself.It involveschangingor eliminatingthesensory stimulation that reinforces the behaviorand when thebehaviornolongerproducesthe reinforcing sensory stimulation,thebehaviorextinguishes.Ex:girlpulled her hair and found stimulation frommanipulatingthehair btwnher thumbfingersreinforcedthe behavior somade her wear latex glovestoextinguishthestimulation - Rincover and hiscolleaguesused sensoryextinctiontodecreaseproblembehaviors exhibitedby children with autismand dvlpmentaldisabilities. CH. 15: Differential Reinforcement - Applying reinforcementand extinction toincreasetheoccurrenceofadesirabletarget behavior or to decrease the occurrence ofundesirablebehaviors.Thereare3typesof differential reinforcement procedures:differentialreinforcement ofalternativebehavior, differential reinforcement of other behavior,and differentialreinforcement oflowratesof responding Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior - DRA isbehavioral procedureused toincreasethefrequencyofadesirablebehaviorand decrease frequency of undesirablebehaviors.DRA involvescombiningreinforcement for a desirable behavior and extinction ofundesirablebehavior Ex:Mrs.Williamsgive attention onlyfor positivethingsbyher.Thebehavioral procedure the nurses used toget Mrs.Williamstosaymore positivethingsand to complain lessisDRA. - When to use DRA:Determine whether itisappropriate (douwanttoincreaserate ofa desirable behavior, isbehavior alreadyoccurringatleast occasionally,and doyouhave accessto areinforcer thtu can deliver after theoccurrence ofthe behavior) - DRA isa procedurefor strengtheningadesirablebehavior.However,thedesirable behavior must be occurring at leastoccasionallyifyou’retoreinforce it.Ifproceduressuch asshaping or prompting are used initiallytoevokethebehavior,DRA maybeused to strengthen and maintainthe behavior Howto Use DRA Define the desirable behavior Define the undesirable behavior Identify thereinforcer:youcould usethereinforcer thatismaintainingthe undesirable behavior orask themquestions.Another optionistryout diffstimuli and see which ones functionasreinforcerswhichiscalled preference assessment which can be conductedin3diff ways:single stimulusassessment,pairedstimulus assessment, and multiple stimulusassessment - In each approach,the researcher identifiesanumber ofpotentialreinforcers,presentsthe potential reinforcersto the person,and recordswhichonetheyapproach.Todetermineif an item wasan reinforcer you would deliver itcontingent onabehaviorand showthat the behavior increased; reinforcer assessment - Single stimulus assessment: eachpotentialreinforcer is presented oneatatime,tosee whether the individual approachesthestimulusornot.After eachstimulusispresented numerous times,the rsrcher calculatesthepercentageoftimesthttheindividual approached each stimulus to indicatewhichstimuliarelikelytobereinforcers - Paired stimulus assessment: alsocalled forcedchoiceor paired choiceprocedure,2 potential reinforcersarepresented totheindividualand thersrcherrecordswhichstimulus the individual approaches.Each stimulusfromapoolofpotentialreinforcersarepresented with every other stimulusmultipletimesand theresearcher calculatesthepercentageof timesthat the individualapproached eachstimulustoindicatewhichstimuliarelikely tobe reinforcers - Multiple stimulus assessment: an arrayofpotentialreinforcersispresented to the individual and thersrchrrecordswhichpotentialreinforcer theindividualapproachesor chooses first. Then the stim
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