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Chapter 6

PSYB45 - Chapter 6.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Summer

Description
Behavioral Modification: Principles & Procedures Chapter 6 – Punishment  Positive and negative reinforcement are processes that strengthen operant behavior, and extinction and punishment are processes that weakens operant behavior  Punishment: a particular behavior occurs; a consequence immediately follows the behavior; as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future (the behavior is weakened)  A punisher (also called an aversive stimulus) is a consequence that makes a particular behavior less likely to occur in the future o You cannot define punishment by whether the consequence appears unfavorable, unpleasant or aversive – the consequence is punishing only if the behavior decreases in the future (not just immediate stopping but it has to stop over time)  Two variations of punishment: positive and negative o Positive punishment is when the occurrence of a behavior is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future o Negative punishment is when the occurrence of a behavior is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future  The critical difference between positive/negative reinforcement and positive/negative punishment is that reinforcement strengthens a behavior or makes it more likely to occur in the future whereas punishment weakens a behavior and makes it less likely to occur in the future  With punishment, there is typically no extinction burst  Two examples of negative punishment are time-out from positive reinforcement and response cost o Both involve the loss of a reinforcing stimulus or activity after the occurrence of a problem behavior  Extinction involves withholding the reinforce that was maintaining the behavior, negative punishment involves removing or withdrawing a positive
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