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Chapter 11

PSYB45 - Chapter 11.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Behavior Modification: Principles & Procedures Chapter 11 – Chaining  Prompts are used to evoke a behavior, and transfer of stimulus control is used to eliminate the prompts and get the behavior to occur in the presence of the relevant discriminative stimulus (S )  A complex behavior consisting of many component behaviors that occur together in a sequence is called a behavioral chain  Each behavioral chain consists of a number of individual stimulus-response components that occur together in a sequence—for this reason, a behavioral chain is often called a stimulus response chain o Each behavior or response in the chain produces a stimulus change that acts as an S for the next response in the chain and the whole stimulus-response chain is under stimulus control, so the first response in the chain occurs when a particular S is present (ex., you can only eat a piece of gum provided you have a pack in your pocket)  A behavioral chain continues only if the last response in the chain results in a reinforcing consequence  The process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulus-response components is called a task analysis  A task analysis to identify the right sequence of behaviors in a chain may be conducted in various ways: one way it t observe a person engage in the task and record each S component, or ask a person who performs the task well (an expert) to explain all the components in the task or do the task yourself  Once the task analysis of a complex skill has been developed, the next step is to choose a strategy for teaching the skill – strategies for teaching complex tasks (behavioral chains) are called chaining procedures  Chaining procedures involve the systematic application of prompting and fading strategies to each stimulus-response component in the chain – 3 different types: backward chaining, forward chaining and total task presentation  Backward chaining is an intensive training procedure typically used with learners with limited abilities -- here, you use prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain first  Forward chaining is similar to backward chaining in that you teach one component of the chain at a time and then chain the components together and you use prompting and fading to teach the behavior associated with the S at e
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