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Chapter 15

PSYB45 - Chapter 15.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures Chapter 15 – Differential Reinforcement  Differential reinforcement involved applying reinforcement and extinction to increase or decrease the occurrence of a behavior  Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is a behavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors o The desirable behavior is reinforced each time it occurs, resulting in an increase in the future probability of the desirable behavior; at the same time, any undesirable behaviors that may interfere are not reinforced, resulting in the decrease in its occurrence  DRA is a procedure for strengthening a desirable behavior, however, the desirable behavior must be occurring at least occasionally if you are to reinforce it o You must be able to identify a reinforce that you can use each time the behavior occurs, if you cannot identify a reinforce or if you have no control over the reinforce, you cannot use DRA  How to use DRA effectively: o Define the desirable behavior o Define the undesirable behavior o Identify the reinforce  One way to identify it is through preference procedure where the researcher identifies a number of potential reinforcers, presents the potential reinforcers to the person and records which ones he or she approaches (can be conducted as a single stimulus assessment, paired stimulus assessment or multiple stimulus assessment)  A reinforcer assessment can be done in which you deliver the item contingent on a behavior and show that the behavior increased  In the single stimulus assessment procedure, each potential reinforce is presented one at a time numerous times and the percentage of each item being chosen is calculated  In the paired stimulus assessment procedure (also called a forced choice or paired choice procedure), 2 potential reinforcers are presented and the percentage is calculated  The multiple stimulus assessment presents multiple stimuli and the research records which reinforce the individuals approaches or chooses first and then removes it and observes again – this procedure is called multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) procedure  Another method for discovering reinforcers is to make each potential reinforce contingent on an operant response o Reinforce the desirable behavior immediately and consistently o Eliminate reinforcement for the undesirable behaviors Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures  If it cannot be eliminated completely, it at least must be minimized so that the contrasts bet
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