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Chapter 17

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Zachariah Campbell

Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures Chapter 17 – Using Punishment: Time-out and Response Cost  Punishment occurs when a behavior is followed by a consequence that results in a decrease in the future probability of the behavior o The consequence may involve the presentation of an aversive stimulus or event (positive punishment), or the removal of a reinforcing stimulus or event (negative punishment), to weaken behavior  Time-out is defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem behavior  Time out is short for time-out from positive reinforcement; two types of time-outs: exclusionary and nonexclusionary o Nonexclusionary time-out is most likely used when the person can be removed from the reinforcing activities or interactions while still remaining in the room, and the presence of the person in the room will not be disruptive to others in the environment – if the latter cannot be met, then exclusionary time out is used  Whenever you use time-out (or any punishment), you should also use a differential reinforcement procedure – time out decreases problem behavior, differential reinforcement increases an alternative behavior  Time-out is appropriate with social or tangible reinforcers  The time-i
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