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Chapter 24

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Behavioral Modification: Principles and Procedures Chapter 24 – Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures  A fear is composed of both operant and respondent behavior; typically, a person is afraid of a particular stimulus or stimulus situation  when the stimulus is present, the person experience unpleasant bodily responses (autonomic nervous system arousal) and engages in escape or avoidance behavior  the bodily responses are respondent behaviors we call anxiety  the autonomic nervous system arousal involved in anxiety is an establishing operation that makes it more likely that the person will engage in escape or avoidance behavior at that time  CS (feared conditions stimulus)  CR (conditioned response = anxiety)  A number of behavior modification procedures are used to help people overcome problems of fear or anxiety, these procedures involve relaxation training, systematic desensitization, and in vivo desensitization  Relaxation training procedures are strategies that people use to decrease the autonomic arousal that they experience as a component of fear and anxiety problems  the person engages in specific relaxation behaviors that result in bodily responses opposite to the autonomic arousal o 4 common relaxation training approaches are progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, attention-focusing exercises and behavioral relaxation training  In progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), the person systematically tenses and relaxes each of the major muscle groups in the body; should be conducted in a quiet room with no distractions  once you learn how to relax each muscle group, you don't have to continuously do it, you can just focus on the ones that experience the most tension  Diaphragmatic breathing, also called deep breathing or relaxed breathing, is where the person breathes deeply in a slow, rhythmic fashion. At each inhalation, the person uses the muscles of the diaphragm to pull oxygen deep into the lungs because anxiety or autonomic arousal most often involves shallow, rap
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