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PSYB45H3 (1,061)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 6: Punishment Defining Punishment Definition of punishment: o 1. A particular behavior occurs. o 2. A consequence immediately follows the behavior. o 3. As a aresult, the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future. (The behavior is weakened) A punisher (also called an aversive stimulus) is a consequence that makes a particular behavior less likely to occur in the future. For Kathy, the dog bite was a punisher for her behavior of reaching over the fencer. A punisher is defined by its effect on the behavior it follows. You cannot define punishment by whether the consequence appears unfavorable or aversive. You can conclude that a particular consequence is punishing only if the behavior decreases in the future. A Common Misconception about Punishment When behavior analysts speak of punishment, they are referring to a process in which the consequence of a behavior results in a future decrease in the occurrence of that behavior. Many people define punishment as something meted out to a person who has committed a crime or other inappropriate behavior. It involves not only the hope that the behavior will cease, but also elements of retribution or retaliation; part of the intent is to hurt the person who has committed the crime. Positive and Negative Punishment Positive Punishment: o 1. The occurrence of a behavior o 2. is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus, o 3. and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future. For example, decreasing self injurious behavior by using punishment. A subject slapped herself in the face, each time she did so, the researches immediately applied a brief electric shock www.notesolution.com
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