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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 11 Chaining Task analysis: is the process of analyzing a behavioural chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulus-response components. Goal is to teach a complex task to a person that involves two or more component responses. First, identify all the behaviours necessary to perform the task and write them D down in order. Next, indentify the S associated with each behaviour in the task. Different ways to conduct a task analysis: 1. Observe a competent person engage in a task 2. Ask an expert ( a person who performs the task well) 3. Perform the task yourself and record each of the competent responses Chaining procedures: are strategies that are used to teach complex tasks (behavioural chains). It involves the application of prompting and fading strategies to each stimulus-response component in the chain. Three types of chaining procedures: 1. Backward chaining 2. Forward chaining 3. Total task presentation Similarities between backward and forward chaining  both are used to teach a chain of behaviours  to use both procedures, you first have to conduct a task analysis that breaks down the chain into stimulus-response components  both teach one behaviour (one component of the chain) at a time and chain the behaviours together  both procedures use prompting and fading to teach each component Differences between backward and forward chaining  forward chaining teaches the first component first, whereas backward chaining teaches the last component  With backward chaining, because you teach the last component first, the learner completes the chain in every learning trial and receives the natural reinforce in every learning trial. In forward chaining, the learner does not complete the chain in every learning trial; artificial reinforcers are used until the last component of the chain is taught. The natural reinforcer occurs after the last behaviour of the chain. When to use the total task presentation  Because the total task presentation procedure requires you to guide the learner through the entire chain of behaviours; it is appropriate for teaching a task that is not too long or too complex. If the task is too long or complex, forward or backward
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