Textbook Notes (362,879)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (9,549)
PSYB45H3 (1,056)
Chapter 19

Chapter 19

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 19 Promoting Generalization • Programming for generalization increases the likelihood that the behavior change will occur in all relevant situations or circumstances in the person’s life Defining Generalization • During discrimination training, the occurrence of a behavior is reinforced only in the presence of a certain stimulus (discriminative stimulus - S ) • Generalization is defined as the occurrence of the behavior in the presence of stimuli that are similar in some way to the S that was present during the training • The occurrence of behavior in the presence of all relevant stimuli outside the training situation • Training is not successful until the behavior generalizes to similar situations Strategies for Promoting Generalization of Behavior Change • Reinforcing occurrences of generalization o Reinforce the behavior when generalization occurs – reinforce the behavior when it occurs outside the training situation in the presence of relevant situation o In this way, all relevant stimuli develop stimulus control over the behavior o One drawback to this strategy is that it is not always possible to provide reinforcement for the behavior outside the training session o If you cannot reinforce instances of generalization, you must use other strategies to promote generalization • Training skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement o If you cannot provide reinforcement for behavior in relevant situations outside the training situation, it is important for natural reinforcers to be present o Although you should strive to teach skills that will contact natural contingencies of reinforcement, this is not always possible • Modifying natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment o Desirable behaviors will occur in relevant situations outside the training situation if the behavior is reinforced in those www.notesolution.com situations (and if punishment contingencies are not operating in those situations) o When the trainer is not able to reinforce occurrences of generalization and there are no existing natural contingencies of reinforcement, generalization may be prompted by modifying the contingencies of reinforcement in the relevant situations * The first three generalization strategies described focus on reinforcing the behavior outside the training situation * The next three focus on arranging appropriate stimulus situations and response variations during training • Incorporating a variety of relevant stimulus situations in training o Incorporate many of the relevant situations in training o Stimulus exemplars – if the learner is trained to respond correctly to a range of relevant stimulus situations (stimulus exemplars), the behavior is more likely to generalize to all relevant stimulus situations o General case programming – using multiple training examples (stimulus exemplars) that sample the range of relevant stimulus situations and response variations • Incorporating common stimuli o Incorporate stimuli from the generalization environment (target situation) into the training situation o If the training and generalization situations have some features or stimuli in common, generalization is more likely to occur o Some aspect of the target situation (a physical or social stimulus) is used in training
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.