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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 txtbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 16: Antecedent Control Procedures aka antecedent manipulation- antecedent stimuli are manipulated to evoke desirable behaviours so that they can be differentially reinforced & to decrease undesirable behaviours that interfere w/ the desirable behaviours Examples of Antecedent Control Getting Marianne to study more: each step involved manipulating antecedent to study oFound 2 hours each day that would be best time for her to study & wrote it in her appointment book for each day if the week -> decided to study in library oIdentified a friend that would study w/ her & wrote down her schedule for day in board -> told her friends not to bother her during that time oKept her books in her bag to study in extra time & wrote down all her tests & assignments in a board & crossed each day of it to see how close she is getting to tests etc. oWrote a contract w/ her counsellor committing to study each day Getting Cal to Eat Right – did similar to example above w/ changing the antecedent conditions that contributed to hi eating behaviour Defining Antecedent Control Procedures Involves manipulating some aspect of the physical or social environment to evoke a desired response to make a competing undesirable behaviour less likely – 6 diff procedures: Presenting the S or Cues for the Desire Behaviour One reason that a desirable behaviour isn’t occurring very often is that the S for behaviour are not present in the person’s environment oE.g. eating healthy food is possible if its present in their environment (kitchen) & are readily available to that person Cal stock the fridge w/ healthy food, made healthy lunch etc. Also used stimulus prompt & response prompt to evoke behaviour- e.g. a grocery list (stimulus prompt) & asked his friend to remind him (response prompt) etc. oE.g. Marianne to study more – S was desk/ quite place w/ books (e.g. library) www.notesolution.com Prompt such as studying schedule (stimulus) , arranging w/ friend to study (response) Consider what circumstances/ stimulus conditions would have stimulus control over the behaviour; thus, arranging the right condition for the behaviour to occur : Arrange S or cues for behaviour by changing some aspect of social or physical environment oE.g. Tony was in anger management group for fighting lot & learned to cue each other to walk away from conflict saying “walk away now” when he looked like he was going to fight Arranging Establishing Operations for the Desirable Behaviour One way to increase likelihood of desirable behaviour’s occurrence is to arrange an establishing operation for the outcome of that behaviour oEstablishing operation is an environmental/ biological event that changes value of stimulus as reinforce; thus, the behaviour that results in that stimulus is strengthened oE.g. Cal w/ cookbook- making it more likely that he would cook food that tasted good & increasing reinforcing value of healthy food; thus, more likely to eat healthful food oE.g. Marianne w/ studying calendar w/ test date & crossed each day as it went & seeing the test date getting closer made studying more reinforcing- could speculate that studying got rid of the anxiety feeling (negatively reinforced) since feelings are private matters & not observable contract w/ counsellor to study 2 h per day & speculate that by studying got rid of the aversive feeling such as counsellor’s disapproval (negatively reinforced) oE.g. Matt a kid w/ mild mental retardation doesn’t sleep at night properly & engage in verbally abusive behaviour if told to do so establishing operation: don’t let him take nap at afternoon; thus, increasing the value of sleep & going to bed at night properly Decreasing Response Effort for the Desirable Behaviour Another way to increase desirable behaviour is to arrange antecedent conditions such that less effort is needed to engage in the behaviour Less response effort needed for behaviour is more likely to occur than more response effort www.notesolution.com oE.g. Cal - by keeping healthy food available & getting rid of junk food, he made eating healthy food less effortful than going to store & buying junk food oE.g. Marianne- by taking her books in her bag, she had an easy aces to them rather than if she kept it at home All of 3 ways listed above focus on manipulating antecedents to the desirable behaviour & can be used individually or in combination – BUT the procedures should ALWAYS be used in conjunction w/ differential reinforcement that will strengthen the desirable behaviour once it occurs Competing behaviours are concurrent operants reinforced on concurrent schedules of reinforcement one way to make a desirable behaviour is to make undesirable competing behaviours less likely: Removing the S or Cues for Undesirable behaviour One way to decrease undesirable behaviour is to remove the antecedent conditions that have stimulus control over it less likely the behaviour if S/ cues for it isn’t present oE.g. Cal got rid of the S for unhealthy eating (presence of junk food) by getting rid of all the junk food at his home oE.g. Marianne – presence of her friend, TV is S for distractions -> by going to library she gets rid of all S for distractions oE.g. Vicki disrupted her class & got reinforced by Wanda’s attention, who’s presence is S for this behaviour by moving Vicki to front, you remove that S Removing Establishing Operations for Undesirable Behaviour Make the outcome of the undesirable behaviour less reinforcing by removing the establishing operation for the reinforcers (not always possible) ; thus, decreasing that behaviour oE.g. Before going grocery shopping Cal ate (hunger is establishing operation) – made junk food (reinforcer) in the store less reinforcing oE.g. Milly instead of excising slept because she didn’t get enough sleep at night (establish operation & sleep is reinforcer) – to resolve this, went to sleep at night properly Increasing the Response Effort for Undesirable Behaviour if competing (undesirable) behaviours takes more effort, they are less likely to interfere w/ the desirable behaviour www.notesolution.com oE.g. Milly going to health club to run increase the response effort to take nap (have to go home in order to do this) & at the same time removed S for nap (bed) oE.g. By go
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