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Chapter 24

Chapter 24

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 24 Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures Problems involving fear and anxiety are described in terms of operant and respondent behaviors Fear and anxiety reduction procedures are based on principles of operant and respondent conditioning, so they address both types of behavior involved in fear and anxiety problems Defining Fear and Anxiety Problems Fear composed of both operant and respondent behavior; typically, a person is afraid of a particular stimulus or stimulus situation; when the stimulus is present, the person experiences unpleasant bodily responses (autonomic nervous system arousal) and engages in escape or avoidance behavior Anxiety the bodily responses are respondent behaviors; the autonomic nervous system arousal involved in anxiety is an establishing operation that makes it more likely that the person will engage in escape or avoidance behaviors at that time Most problems that we would label as fears or anxiety disorders are characterized by a combination of: o Respondent behavior, in which the bodily response of anxiety is elicited by a particular CS, and o Operant behavior, in which escape or avoidance behaviors are reinforced by removal of the feared stimulus and reduction in the unpleasant anxiety Often it is not known how the CS (the feared stimulus) became conditioned to elicit the CR of anxiety o Recall chapter 8 (neutral stimulus becomes a CS when it is paired with a US or another CS) In many cases, the person with the fear cannot remember a past event that may have conditioned the feared stimulus; knowledge of how the fear was conditioned is unnecessary to help the person overcome the fear What is important is to identify all the stimuli that currently function as CSs and elicit the fear responses (CRs) Sometimes a problem that appears to be a fear or anxiety problem is simply an operant behavior with no respondent behavior or fear component o If it is a fear, you experience the respondent behavior of autonomic arousal that we call anxiety www.notesolution.com
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