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Chapter 22

Chapter 22: A Token Economy

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

B45: Behaviour Modification Chapter 22: The Token Economy DEFINING A TOKEN ECONOMY Token economy- a reinforcement system in which conditioned reinforcers called tokens are delivered to people for desirable behaviours: the tokens are later exchanged for backup reinforcers. A token is delivered immediately after a desirable behaviour and is later exchanged for backup reinforcers. Because the token is paired with other reinforcers, it becomes a conditioned reinforcer that strengthens the desirable behaviour it follows. The following of basic components of a token economy: The desirable target behaviours to be strengthened The tokens to be used as conditioned reinforcers The backup reinforcers to be exchanged for the tokens A reinforcement schedule for token delivery The rate at which tokens are exchanged for the backup reinforcers A time and place for exchanging tokens for backup reinforcers IMPLEMENTING A TOKEN ECONOMY Defining the Target Behaviours. Identify and define the desirable behaviours that will be reinforced in the program. The main criterion for choosing the target behaviours is that they are socially significant or meaningful for the people involved in the program. Identifying the Items to Use as Tokens. Must be something tangible that the change agent can deliver immediately for each instance of the target behaviour, and it must be practical and convenient. Identifying Backup Reinforcers. Tokens acquire their effectiveness as conditioned reinforcers because they are paired with the backup reinforcers; therefore, the effectiveness of a token economy depends on the backup reinforcers. Backup reinforcers may include consumable such as snacks or drinks, toys or they may include activity reinforcers such as games, videos, TV time and privileges. 1 www.notesolution.com
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