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Chapter 11

Chapter 11.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 11 “Chaining” Behavioral chain (stimulus-response chain) – a complex behavior consisting of many component behaviors that occur together in a sequence I. Examples of Behavioral Chains  Gum examples=engage at least 5 behaviors, w/c must occur together in the correct sequence o You can only engage in a particular beh in the sequence only if the previous beh in the sequence has been identified. II. Analyzing Stimulus-Response Chains Stimulus-Response Change o Each beh chain consists of a # of individual stimulus-response components that occur together in a sequence. o each behavior or response in the chain produces a stimulus change that acts as an SD for the next response in the chain o First response produces an SD for the second response in the sequence. The second response produces an SD for third response and so on, until all the responses in the chain occur in order. *The whole stimulus response chain is under stimulus control, so the first response in the chain occurs when a particular SD is presented o E.g. gum in your pocket is an S , a bin of full of towels near Bobby is also an S D *A beh chain continues only if the last response in the chain results in a reinforcing consequence. o e.g. chewing the gum is a reinforcer for the beh chain of putting the gum in your mouth,folded towel is a conditioned reinforcer bc it is associated w/ other reinforcers, such as getting paid & being praised b the boss. *good chaining e.g. see p.198 *Each subsequent response in the chain occurs bc the previous response created the S D that has stimulus control over that response. *We can make the outcome of the chain more reinforcing by means of an Establishing Operation o the EO makes the gum more reinforcing by at a certain time, & this ↑ the likelihood that you will start the beh chain by reaching in to your pocket & grabbing the pack of gum o EO might be having a bad taste in your mouth fr onions, having an old piece of gum in your mouth, having just smoke a cigarette, or any circumstance that would make fresh break reinforcing at the time(such as talking to your gf/bf) o “want gum”=does not help us understand why gum might be more reinforcing at a particular time III. Task Analysis Task analysis – the process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down to its individual stimulus- response components Steps: i. First step is to identify all the behaviors that are necessary to perform the task and write them down in order ii. identify the SD associated with each behavior in the task -b/c teaching task to person involves discrimination training with each stimulus-response component of the behavioral chain, you must have a detailed task analysis that gives you an accurate understanding of each stimulus-response component *The advantage of performing the task yourself when developing a task analysis is that it provides the best info about each response involved in the task & the stimulus associated w/ each response. -you can get the most info on a task fr your own experience w/ the task.(put yourself on the task  - Different ways to conduct a task analysis: o Observe a competent person engage in the task o Ask an expert o Perform the task yourself and record each of the component responses  Once developed initial task analysis, you might have to revise it after you start training o Can break some beh down into component beh, or that you can combine 2/more beh into a single beh o Depends on how well your training is progressing  If the learner is having difficulty w/ a certain beh in the chain, it might help you to break down the beh into 2/more component beh  If the learner can master larger units of beh, 2/more component beh can be combined into 1.  See e.g. p.200(5 steps vs. 3 steps)  Each step is characterized by a stimulus & a response, but the size of the response is different.  Once task analysis has been developed, the next step is to choose strategy for teaching the skill. o Strategies for teaching complex tasks(beh chains) are called chaining procedures Chaining procedures – systematic application of prompting and fading strategies to each stimulus-response component in the chain IV. Backward Chaining 1) Backward chaining: Intensive training procedure  Used with learners with limited abilities  Use prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain first  Learner completes the chain on every learning trial once last behavior is mastered, teach the next to last behavior o SD5 + Prompt  R5  reinforce >use the least intrusive prompt necessary to get the behavior to get the behavior to occur o Once mastered the last component in the chain, you back up the chain & teach the next component and so on(see complete e.g. on p.204)  Using reinforcers at each step in the backward chaining process is important bc it makes the outcome of D each step a conditioned reinforcer, as well as an S for the next response. V. Forward Chaining 2) Forward chaining  Use prompting and fading to teach the first behavior in the chain first  You teach the 1 component, then the 2 component, & so on(i.e. you move from the front of the chain to the end) st D  To use forward chaining, you present the 1 S ,prompt the correct response & provide a reinforcer after the response o S 1+prompt → R1 → reinforcer  Artificial reinforcers are used until the last component of the chain is taught. The natural reinforcer occurs after the last behavior of the chain Forward Chaining Similarities Backward Chaining  Teaches the 1 st  Both are use to teach a  Teaches the last component 1 st chain of beh component 1 st  The learner does not  To usestoth procedures,  Bc you teach ste lasy complete the chain in you 1 have to conduct a component 1 , the learner every learning trial; task analysis that breaks completes the chain in artificial reinforcers are down the chain into every learning trial & used until the component stimulus-response receives the natural of the chain is taught. components reingforcer in every The natural reinforcer  Both teach 1 beh(1 learning trial occurs after the last beh component of the chain) of the chain
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