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Chapter 24

chapter 24 notes

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Zachariah Campbell

Ch 24-b45 Fear and anxiety reduction procedures are based on principles of operant and respondant conditioning. Defining fear and anxiety procedures Before talking about treatment, it is important to provide operational definitions of the behaviors involved. A fear is composed of both operant and respondent behavior. When the stimulus is present, the person experiences unpleasant bodily responses and engages in escape or avoidance behavior. The bodily responses are respondent behaviors we call anxiety. The CR involved unpleasant sensations that people call anxiety. Fears or anxiety disorders are characterized by a combination of respondent behavior, in which the bodily responses of anxiety is elicited by a particular CS, and operant behavior, in which escape or avoidance behaviors are reinforced by removal of the feared stimulus and reduction in the unpleasant anxiety. Treatment approaches involve components that address both the operant and respondent behaviors. It may no be known how the CS became conditioned to elicit the CR of anxiety. Knowledge of how the fear was conditioned is unnecessary to help the person overcome the fear. What is important is to identify all the stimuli that currently function as CS and elicit the fear responses. One other issue to consider is understanding fears and anxiety problems is that sometimes a problem that appears to be a fear or anxiety problem is simply an operant behavior with no respondent behavior or fear component. It is important to conduct a functional assessment of the supposed fear behavior to determine what function it serves for the child. Procedures to reduce fear and anxiety Relaxation training Procedures are strategies that people use to decrease the autonomic arousal that they experience as a component of fear and anxiety problems. Relaxation exercises produce bodily responses such as decreases in muscle tension, heart rate, and breathing rate and warming of the hands. -progressive muscle relaxation: the person systematically tenses and relaxes each of the major muscle groups in the body. The person must first learn how to tense and relax each of the major muscles. Starting with the first muscle group, the dominant hand and arm, the client tenses the muscles tightly for 5 secs then abruptly releases the tension. When person tries PMR without the help of a therapist or audiotape, he or she must first practice tensing and relaxing each muscle group and them memorize the sequence to do the procedure correctly. Because the PR procedures www.notesolution.com
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