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Chapter 4-6


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Zachariah Campbell

CH4 REINFORCEMENTReinforcement the process in which a behavior is strengthened by the immediate consequence tht reliably follows its occurrence When a behavior is strengthened it is more likely to occur again the future Ex Thorndikes law of effect with the hungry cat in the cage hittng level with paw to open it to get foodDefining ReinforcementWhen a behavior results in a favourable outcome one tht contributes to the well being or survival of the animal tht behavior is more likely to be repeated in the future in similar circumstancesIt is defined as the occurrence of a particular behavior is followed by an immediate consequence and tht results in the strengthening of the behavior the person is more likely to engage in the behavior again in the futureWe can determine tht a behavior is strengthened when there is an increase in its frequency duration intensity or speed decreased latency Operant behavior a behavior is strengthened through the process of reinforcement An operant behavior acts on the environment to produce a consequence and in turn is ctrlld by or occurs again the future as a result of its immediate consequence The consequence tht strengthens an operant behavior is called a reinforcer Ex child crying at night to gain parents attentionIt is correct to say u reinforce a behavior or a response You are strengthening a behavior by reinforcing it It is incorrect to say u reinforce a personPositive and Negative ReinforcementBoth are processes tht strengthen a behavior both increase probability tht the behavior will occur in the future Theyre only distinguished only by the nature of the consequence tht follows the behaviorPositive Reinforcementthe occurrence of a behavior addition of a stimulus a reinforcer or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus and which results in the strengthening of the behaviorNegative Reinforcement occurrence of a behavior removal of a stimulus an aversive stimulus or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus and results in strengthening of the behaviorStimulus an object or event tht can be detected by one of the senses and thus has the potential to influence the person stimuli is plural It can be behavior of the person or of othersIn positive reinforcement the stimulus that is presented or tht appears after the behavior is called a positive reinforcera pleasant desirable or valuable tht a person will try to get In negative reinforcement the stimulus tht is removed or avoided after the behavior is called an aversive stimulus unpleasant painful or annoying tht a person will try to get away from or avoid Pos reinforcement a responses produces a stimulus whereas in negative reinforcement a response removes or prevents the occurrence of a stimulus in both cases the behavior is more likely to occur in the futurenegative reinforcement nd punishment negative removal or subtraction reinforcement like positive reinforcement increases or strengthens a behavior Punishment decreases or weakens a behaviorReinforcement is alwys defined by the effect it has on the behavior Functional definition Ex child completes school wrk nd teacher congratulates him and pats him on his back It can be positive if the praise leads the child to complete more school tasks in the future Hwever teachers attention may not be reinforce for every children so u have to try it out and measure its effect on the behavior Ask urself 3 questions when analyzing a situation and determine whether it illustrates positive or negative reinforcement 1 What is the behavior 2 What happened immediately after the behavior was a stimulus added or removed 3 What happened to the behavior in the future was the behavior strengthened Was it more likely to occurSocial vs Automatic ReinforcementWhen a behavior produces a reinforcing consequence through the actions of another person the process is Social reinforcement Ex social pos reinforcmnt might involve asking ur roommate to bring u bag of chips Social neg reinforcmnt involve asking ur roommate to turn down the TV when it is too loud In both cases consequence of behavior was produced through the action of another personWhen the behavior produces a reinforcing consequence through direct contact with the physical environment the process is automatic reinforcement Ex automatic pos reinforcement would be if u wnt to kitchen nd got chips for urself Automatic neg reinforcmnt would be getting remote and turn dwn the tv volume by urself In both cases the reinforcing consequence was not produced by another personPremack priniciple a type of positive reinforcement involves the opportunity to engage in a high probability behavior a preferred behavior as a consequence of a low probability behavior a less preferred behavior to increase the low probability behavior Ex doing hwk before going to playEscape and Avoidance Behaviours Escape behaviour occurrence of the behavior results in the termination of an aversive stimulus tht was already present when the behavior occurred The person escapes frm the aversive stimulus and tht behavior is strengthenedAvoidance behavior occurrence of the behavior prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring The person avoids the aversive stimulus by engaging in a particular behavior and tht behavior is strengthened
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