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CH 7-8.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

CH.7 Stimulus Control: Discrimination and Generalization - Antecedents: stimulus events tht precede an operant response. The antecedents of a behavior are the stimuli, events, situations, or circumstances, that are present when it occurs or were present immediately before the behavior. - it is important to understand the antecedents of operant behavior b.c when we do we have info on the circumstances in which the behavior was reinforced and the circumstances in which the behavior was not reinforced for was punished. A behavior continues to occur in situations in which it has been reinforced or has been punished in the past. Defining Stimulus Control - a behavior more likely to occur when a specific antecedent was present. A behavior is under stimulus ctrl when there is an increased probability tht the behavior will occur in the presence of a specific antecedent stimulus or a stimulus from a specific stimulus (red strawberries frm example) Developing Stimulus Control: Stimulus Discrimination Training - discriminative stimulus: antecedent is present when a behavior is reinforced - stimulus discrimination training: the process of reinforcing a behavior only when a specific antecedent stimulus is present. Involves 2 steps: when sD is present, the behavior is present AND when any other antecedent stimuli except the sD are present, the behaviour is not reinforced. During discrimination training, any antecedent stimulus tht is present when the behavior is not reinforced is called an S-delta. - As a result of discrimination training, a behavior is more likely to occur in the future when an sD is present but less likely to occur when an S-delta is present. Presence of an sD does not cause a behavior to occur; it does not strengthen a behavior. Rather, it increases likelihood of (or evokes) the behavior in the present situation because it was assoctd with reinforcement of the behavior in the past, reinforcement is wht causes the behavior to occur when sD is present. Discrimination training in the Lab - Holland and Skinner, hungry pigeon peck at disks with green and red keys to get food. They turned the red light Sd and then whenever the pigeon pecked the key, they delivered food (reinforcement). Sometimes they turned on the green light (s-delta) and when the pigeon pecked the key, they didn’t deliver food (extinction). Because of the process of discrimination training, the pigeon is more likely to peck the key when the light is red and less likely to peck the key when the light is green. The red light signal tht key-pecking will be reinforced; the green light signals tht key-pecking will not be reinforced - If a behavior is punished in the presence of one antecedent stimulus, the behavior will decrease and stop occurring in the future when tht stimulus is present. Behavior may continue to occur when other antecedent stimuli are present. The 3 term contingency - Skinner; stimulus discrimination training involves a three-term contingency in which the consequence (reinforcer or punisher) is a contingent on the occurrence of the behavior only in the presence of the specific antecedent stimulus called the Sd (consequence is contingent if the behavior occurs in the presence of the antecedent stimulus). Often called the ABCs (antecedent, behavior and consequence) of a behavior. Notation for 3 term contingency involving reinforcement; Sd (discriminative stimulus)R (response, an instance of the behavior)Sr (reinforcer, or reinforcing stimulus). Notation for 3 term contingency involving punishment is SdRSp ( discriminative stimulus, punisher, punishing stimulus) Generalization - It takes place when a behavior occurs in the presence of stimulus tht are similar in some ways to the sD tht was present during stimulus discrimination training - Generalization gradient: the more similar another stimulus is to the sD, the more likely it is tht the behavior will occur in the presence of tht stimulus. A stimuli are less and less similar to the sD, the behavior is less and less likely to occur in the presence of these stimuli - Stimulus class: antecedent stimuli tht share similar features tht have the sme functional effect on a particular behavior. Stimulus generalization has also occurred when the child complies with the request of another adult not just the parents. CH.8 Respondent Conditioning - Operant Behaviors are ctrlled by their consequences, operant conditioning involves the manipulation of consequences, respondent behaviors are ctrlled (elicited) by antecedent stimuli and respondent conditioning involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli Examples of Respondent Conditioning - Unconditioned responses: responses are elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning or learning has occurred. - URs can occur to anyone when an unconditioned stimulus is presented. We respond to unconditioned stimulus as it has survival value - Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus is paired with a US, as a result of this pairing, the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus and elicits a conditioned response similar to the UR. A UR or CR is called a respondent behavior. - Respondent conditioning is also called classical conditioning or pavlovian conditioning. Ivan Pavlov demonstrated tht dogs salivated when meat powder was placed in their mouths (US will elicit a UR), then presented a NS (the bell sound) just before the meat powder into the dog’s mouth. He presented the NS and the food are presented together. After this, he presented the sound of the metronome by itself. He found tht the dog now salivated to the sound of metronome without the meat powder in its mouth. The sound of the metronome became a CS because it was paired a number of times with the meat powder (US) [NS+US=CS], CS + RS= CR. Timing of the Neutral Sti
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