Chapter 9 Shaping
- Shaping: used to dvlp a target behavior tht a person does not currently exhibit. Shaping is
defined as the differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior
until the person exhibits the target behavior. Differential reinforcement involves the basic
principles of reinforcement and extinctions. Differential reinforcement occurs when one
particular behavior is reinforced and all other behaviors aren’t reinforced in a particular
situation. The behavior tht is reinforced increases and behaviors tht aren’t reinforced decrease
- Successive approximations: shaping steps. To begin shaping, you identify an existing behavior
tht is an approximation of the target behavior, this is called starting behavior or first
approximation. You reinforce this behavior and as a result, the person starts to exhibit this
behavior more often. You stop reinforcing the behavior and as part of subsequent extinction
burst, novel behaviors typically begin to appear. Then you start reinforcing a novel behavior tht
is a close approximation to the target behavior. As a result, the person starts to exhibit the new
behavior more often and exhibits the previous behavior less often.
How to use shaping
1. Define target behavior
2. Determine whether shaping is the most appropriate procedure (if the person already engages
in the target behavior at least occasionally, you don’t need to use shaping, you can simply use
differential reinforcement to increase the frequency of the target behavior). Shaping is used for
the acquisition of a novel topography or a novel dimension of a behavior or to reinstate a
behavior that the person does not currently exhibit. However, other, more efficient behavioral
acquisition strategies (modeling or instructions) may be preferable.
3. Identify the starting behavior. The starting behavior or first approximation must be a behavior
tht the person already engages in, at least occasionally. The starting behavior must have some
relevance to the target behavior.
4. Choose the shaping steps. Each step must be a closer approximation to the target behavior
than the previous step (successive approximation)
5. Choose reinforcer to use in the shaping procedure. You must choose a consequence tht will be
a reinforcer for the person participating in the shaping procedure. The amnt of the reinforcer
should be such tht the person does not satiate easily. Conditioned reinforcers such as tokens or
praise are often useful to avoid satiation.
6. Differentially reinforce each successive approximation. Beginning with the starting behavior,
reinforce each instance of the behavior until the behavior occurs reliably. Then start reinforcing
the next approximation while no longer reinforcing the previous approximation, once this
approximation occurs consistently, stop reinforcing this behavior and begin reinforcing the next approximation. Continue with this process of differential reinforcement of successive
approximations until target behavior is being reinforced or is occurring.
7. Move through the shaping steps at a proper pace
Shaping of Problem Behaviors
- In some circumstances, prblm behaviors may be dvlpd unintentionally through shaping so
successive approximations of a behavior that is not beneficial to the person are reinforced.
CH.10 Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
- Prompt: it is used to increase the likelihood tht a person will engage in the correct behavior at
the correct time. A prompt may involve the behavior of the trainer (response prompts) or
supplemental envrnmntal stimuli (stimulus prompts). It can be verbal and gestural
(instructions). Modeling prompt (showed hw to do it), physical prompt (physically guided
through the correct behavior)
What is Prompting?
- Prompts are stimuli given before or during the performance of a behavior. They help behavior
occur so tht the teacher can provide reinforcement.
What is fading?
- Fading is the gradual elimination of the prompt as the behavior continues to occur in the
presence of the sD. It is a way to transfer stimulus ctrl frm the prompts to the sD. Faded
(helping is removed)
Types of Prompts
- 2 major categories of prompts are response prompts and stimulus prompts.
Response prompts: It is the behavior of another person tht evokes the desired response in the
presence of the sD such as verbal prompts, gestural, modeling, and physical prompts
- Verbal prompts: when you say something that helps the person engage in the correct behavior.
- Gestural prompts: any physical movement or gesture of another person tht leads to the
correct behavior in the presence of the sD is considered a gestural prompt. They should n