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PSYB45H3 (1,056)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

CH.13 Understanding Problem Behaviors through Functional Assessment - Functional Assessment: the processofidentifyingthesevariables(3termcontingence) beforetreating a problem behavior - The behavior occursasafunction ofenvironmentalvariables - Functional assessment is the processofgatheringinformation abtthe antecedentsand consequencestht are functionallyrelated totheoccurrence ofaproblembehavior.It providesinformation ththelpsyoudetermine whyaprblmbehaviorisoccurring. - It also providesdetailed info abt antecedent stimuliincludingtimeand place ofthe behavior, ppl present when the behavioroccurs,anyenvrmntleventsimmediately preceding the behavior,and the frequencyofthetargetbehavior. - FA alsoprovidesother typesof information thtareimportant fordvlpngappropriate treatments for prblm behaviors,includingtheexistence ofalternativebehaviorsthatmay be functionally equivalent to the prblmbehavior,motivationalvariables(establishing operationsand abolishing operationsthtinfluencetheeffectivenessofstimulias reinforcersand punishers),stimulithtmayfunction asreinforcersfor theperson,and the history of previous treatments and their outcomes. - Categories of Information from a FunctionalAssessment:problembehaviors, consequences,alternative behaviors,motivationalvariables,potentialreinforcers,previous intervention Functions of Problem Behaviors - Problem behaviors are an objectivedescriptionofthebehaviorsthatmakeuptheproblem. A primary purpose of a functionalassessment istoidentifythefunction oftheproblem behavior. There are 4broad classesofreinforcingconsequencesorfunctionsofproblem behaviors. Social Positive Reinforcement - One type of reinforcing consequence involves positivereinforcementmediated by another person. When a positively reinforcingconsequence isdeliveredbyanother personafter the targetbehavior, it iscalled socialpositivereinforcement.It mayinvolveattention,accessto activities,or tangible provided by another person.Ex:child gettingattentionfrommother asa reinforcer for her prblm Social Negative Reinforcement - When another person terminates anaversiveinteraction,task,oractivityafter the occurrence of a targetbehavior, and as aresultthebehaviorismore likelytooccur the behavior issaid to be maintainedbysocialnegativereinforcement.Ex:escapingfrom doing atask by hurting themselvesorcomplaining.It strengthensorreinforcesthe problem behavior Automatic Positive Reinforcement - The reinforcing consequence of atarget behaviorisnotmediated byanother personbut rather occursasan automatic consequence ofthebehavioritself.When thebehavior producesa reinforcing consequence automatically,and thebehavioris strengthened,the behavior issaid to maintain by automaticpositivereinforcement. Automatic Negative Reinforcement - It occurswhen thetarget behaviorautomaticallyreducesoreliminatesanaversivestimulus asa consequence of the behavior and thebehaviorisstrengthened.Withautomatic negative reinforcement,escape fromtheaversivestimulusisnotmediated bytheactions of another person. Functional Assessment Methods - The variousmethodsused to conduct functionalassessment arein 3categories: indirect assessment methods,in which information isgathered throughinterviewsand questionnaires; direct observation methods,inwhichanobserver recordsthe antecedents, behavior, and consequencesastheyoccur; and experimentalmethods(alsocalled functional analysis) in which antecedentsand consequencesaremanipulated toobserve their effect on the prblmbehavior Indirect Methods: - Behavioral interviewsor questionnairesareusedtogather informationfromtheperson exhibiting the prblm behavior (theclient)or fromotherswhoknowthisperson - Indirect assessment methodsare alsoknown asinformant assessment methodsb.can informant (theclient orothers) isprovidinginformation in response to assessment questions. - The advantage of indirect functionalassessment methodsisthatthey’reeasytoconduct and do not take much time. A number ofinterviewformatsand questionnairesare available for use in conducting a functionalassessment.Disadvantageofindirect methods isthat the informants must rely on their memoryoftheevents.Thus,informationfrm interviewsand questionnaires maybeincorrectasaresultofforgettingorbias. - The goal of a behavioral interviewistogenerateinformation ontheprblmbehaviors, antecedents,consequences,and other variablesthtwillpermityoutoformahypothesis abt the ctrlling variablesfor the prblm - The goal of a behavioral interviewistogenerateinfoon theprblmbehaviors,antecedents, consequences,and other variablesthtwillpermityoutoforma hypothesisabt the ctrlling variables for the prblm.The behaviorsand eventsmustbeidentified andspecified,tht inferencesshould be minimized and thtitisimportant tofocusonantecedentsand consequencesin understanding andchangingbehavior. - Since indirect functional assessment methodshavethedisadvantageofreplyingon informants’ memoriesofevents,researcherssuggestusingmultiplefunctionalassessment methodsto produce themost accurate informationonantecedents,consequences,and other variables. - Categories:describebehaviors,define potentialecologicaleventsthtmayaffect the behaviors,define eventsand situationsthtpredict occurrencesofthebehaviors,identify the function of theundesirable behaviors.Whatconsequencesmaintain thebehavior, define efficiency of theundesirablebehaviors,define theprimarymethodsthepersonuses to communicate, identify potentialreinforcers,wht functionalalternativebehaviorsdoes the person know,and provide a historyofundesirablebehaviorsand theprogramsththave been attempted. Direct Observation Methods - When conducting a functional assessment usingdirect observation methods,aperson observesand recordsthe antecedentsand consequenceseachtimetheprblmbehavior occurs. - The person conducting direct observation assessment (observer)maybethe person exhibiting the problem behavior or itmaybeanother personassociated withtheclient such asa parent, teacher,staff person,psychologist,etc.Theantecedentsand consequencesare observed andrecorded inthenaturalenvironment theproblembehavior takes place - DO assessment isalso called ABC observation,whichgoal’s istorecord theimmediate antecedents and consequencestypically associated with the problembehavior under normal conditions. - Main advantage of ABCobservationsover indirect methodsisthatan observer isrecording the antecedents and consequencesastheyoccurratherthan reportingfrommemory. Disadvantage isthat ABC observationstakemoretimeandeffortthan interviewor questionnaire methods.AlthoughABCOprovide objectiveinformationabt the antecedents and consequenceswith the prblm behavior,theydon’t demonstrate afunctionalrltnship but rather a correlationof the antecedentsand consequenceswiththe problembehaviorin which the information allowsyoutodvlpa hypothesisabt the antecedentsthtevokethe behavior and thereinforcer tht maintainsthebehavior. - A strong hypothesisabt the ctrllingantecedentsand consequencesoftenissufficient to dvlpeffective treatmentstrategies.Your hypothesisabt the ctrllingvariablesis strengthened when the information fromindirectassessment isconsistent withinfofrom the ABC direct observation assessment. - It’sbest for the observerto be present inthe client’snaturalenvironmentwhen theprblm behavior ismost likely to occur - Touchette and Colleagues described amethodtoassessthetimeofdaythttheproblem occursmost often by using a scatter plot. Tocreateit,someonein theclient’snatural envrmntrecordsonce each half hour whether theprblmbehavioroccurred dur
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