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PSYB45H3 (1,056)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

CH.14: Applying Extinction - To use extinction,you must first identifythe reinforcer thatmaintainstheproblem behavior and theneliminate it.A behaviorthatisnolonger reinforced willdecreasein frequency and stop. Using Extinction to Decrease a Problem Behavior 1. Collecting Data to AssessTreatment Effects - You must record the prblm behaviorbeforeand after theuseoftheextinctionprocedureto determine whether thebehavior decreased when extinctionwasimplemented. - You will need a behavioral definition oftheprblmbehaviortobedecreased,areliabledata collection method, a baseline assessment todetermine theleveloftheprblmbehavior beforethe use of extinction,data collection inallrelevant settingsaftertreatmentto determine whether thebehavior decreased andwhether generalizationoccurred,and continueddata collection over timetoassessthemaintenanceofbehaviorchange. 2. Identifying the Reinforcer for theProblemBehaviorthroughFunctionalAssessment - Identify the specific reinforcer forthe prblmbehaviorsothtyoucan eliminate itinan extinction procedure. There canbemorethanreinforcer bydifferent people. 3. Eliminating the Reinforcer after EachInstance ofthe ProblemBehavior - Have you identifiedthe reinforcer? Failure toeliminate theparticular stimulusorevent that functionsasthe reinforcer for theprblmbehaviorisfailuretoimplementthe extinction procedure correctly. - Extinctionfollowing positive reinforcement:when abehaviorispositively reinforced, extinction meansthe person no longer getsthepositivereinforcer followingthebehavior; Extinctionfollowing negative reinforcement: when abehaviorisnegativelyreinforced, extinction meansthe person no longer escapesfromtheaversivestimulusfollowingthe behavior. The variation of extinction iscalled escape extinction - Can you eliminate the reinforcer? Thechangeagent hastocontrolthereinforcer (parent, teacher,staff member,nurse, etc.),ifthechangeagent hasnocontrolover thereinforcer, extinction can’t be implemented. - Is extinction safe to use? It isimportant todeterminewhether extinctioncould resultin harm to the person exhibiting theproblembehavioror toother peopleintheimmediate environment.To provideescape often requiresphysicalguidance throughthetask,which may be difficult or impossible if you’reworkingwithan adult whophysicallyresiststhe guidance in which otherfunctionalproceduresshould beused instead ofextinction. - Can extinction burst (escalation ofthe problembehavior)be tolerated? Extinction burst isin which the behavior increases in frequence,duration,orintensity,ornovelbehavioror emotional responses occur.If youpredict thechangeagent willbeunabletopersist in withholding the reinforcer duringan extinctionburst,or ifyoucan’t prevent harm duringan extinction burst, an extinction procedureshould notbeused. - Can consistencybe maintained? Forextinction tobeimplemented correctly,thereinforcer must never follow the problem behavior whichmeansthtallpplinvolved in thetreatment must be consistent andeliminate thereinforcingconsequence eachtimethe problem behavior occurs.Allchange agentsmustbetrained tousetheprocedurecorrectlyto ensure consistently in implementing an extinctionpro
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