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Zachariah Campbell

CH. 15: Differential Reinforcement - Applying reinforcementand extinction toincreasetheoccurrenceofadesirabletarget behavior or to decrease the occurrence ofundesirablebehaviors.Thereare3typesof differential reinforcement procedures:differentialreinforcement ofalternativebehavior, differential reinforcement of other behavior,and differentialreinforcement oflowratesof responding Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior - DRA isbehavioral procedureused toincreasethefrequencyofadesirablebehaviorand decrease frequency of undesirablebehaviors.DRA involvescombiningreinforcement for a desirable behavior and extinction ofundesirablebehavior Ex:Mrs.Williamsgive attentiononlyfor positivethingsbyher.Thebehavioral procedure the nurses used toget Mrs.Williamstosaymore positivethingsand to complain lessisDRA. - When to use DRA:Determine whether itisappropriate (douwanttoincreaserate ofa desirable behavior, isbehavior alreadyoccurringatleast occasionally,and doyouhave accessto areinforcer thtu can deliver after theoccurrence ofthe behavior) - DRA isa procedurefor strengtheningadesirablebehavior.However,thedesirable behavior must be occurring at leastoccasionallyifyou’retoreinforce it.Ifproceduressuch asshaping or prompting are used initiallytoevokethebehavior,DRA maybeused to strengthen and maintainthe behavior Howto Use DRA Define the desirable behavior Define the undesirable behavior Identify thereinforcer:youcould usethereinforcer thatismaintainingthe undesirable behavior orask themquestions.Another optionistryout diffstimuli and see which ones functionasreinforcerswhichiscalled preference assessment which can be conductedin3diff ways:single stimulusassessment,pairedstimulus assessment, and multiple stimulusassessment - In each approach,the researcher identifiesanumber ofpotentialreinforcers,presentsthe potential reinforcersto the person,and recordswhichonetheyapproach.Todetermineif an item wasan reinforcer you would deliver itcontingent onabehaviorand showthat the behavior increased; reinforcer assessment - Single stimulus assessment: eachpotentialreinforcer ispresented oneatatime,tosee whether the individual approachesthestimulusornot.After eachstimulusispresented numerous times,the rsrcher calculatesthepercentageoftimesthttheindividual approached each stimulus to indicatewhichstimuliarelikelytobereinforcers - Paired stimulus assessment: alsocalled forcedchoiceor paired choiceprocedure,2 potential reinforcersarepresented totheindividualand thersrcherrecordswhichstimulus the individual approaches.Each stimulusfromapoolofpotentialreinforcersarepresented with every other stimulusmultipletimesand theresearcher calculatesthepercentageof timesthat the individualapproached eachstimulustoindicatewhichstimuliarelikely tobe reinforcers - Multiple stimulus assessment: an arrayofpotentialreinforcersis presented tothe individual and thersrchrrecordswhichpotentialreinforcer theindividualapproachesor chooses first. Then the stimulusisremoved fromthe arrayand thersrcherrecordswhich stimulusthe individual choosesnext.Thisstimulusisremoved fromthearrayand the processcontinues until the individualhasapproached orchosen allstimuli.Thearrayof stimuliispresented a number of timestoidentifytheorder inwhichthestimuliare chosen, the stimulichosen first are likely tobe strongerreinforcersthanthestimulichosen last.The reinforcement procedure iscalled multiple stimulus withoutreplacement (MSWO) procedure. - Another technique to assessreinforcersistomke eachpotentialreinforcer contingent on an operantresponse. If frequencyordurationoftheresponseincreaseswhen astimulusis contingent on theresponse u havedemonstrated thtthestimulusisareinforcer.Ex: Wacker’sstudents pressed switchtoactivate different electricgamesor instruments (music,fan,train, etc.),the longer theduration,then thatwasthereinforcer forthe student. Reinforce desirable behavior immediatelyandconsistently Eliminate reinforcement for theundesirablebehavior Use intermittentreinforcementtomaintainthetargetbehavior Program for generalization Variation of DRA - Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI): alternativebehavior is physically incompatible with the prblmbehaviorand thereforethe 2behaviorscan’t occur at the same time. - Differential reinforcement of communication (DRC) but itiscalled functional communication training; the individualwiththeproblembehaviorlearnstomake a communication response tht isfunctionallyequivalent totheprblmbehavior.When the communication producesthe same reinforcingoutcomeastheprblmbehavior,thereisno longer any reason forthe prblm behaviortooccur. In thefunctionalcommunication training,an individual with a problembehaviorreinforcedbyattentionwould learntoask for attention.An individual with a problembehaviorreinforced byescapefromaparticular situation would learn toask for a break fromthesituation.Thecommunicationresponse that isreinforced in thisvariation ofDRA ismore efficient than theprblmbehavior; oneof the advatnagesof communication asan alternative. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior - DRO-Knight and McKensize conducted astudytoevaluatetheeffectsofdifferential reinforcementfor decreasing bedtime thumb suckinginchildren. - In DRO,the reinforcer iscontingent ontheabsence oftheproblembehavior.Reinforcer is no longer delivered afterthe prblmbehaviorbut thereinforcer isdeliveredafter an interval of time in which the prblm behaviordoesnotoccur.Ifthereinforcer isdelivered only after periodsin which the prblm behaviorisabsent,theprblmbehaviordecreasesthrough extinction,and time periodswithout theprblmbehaviorshould increase.Ifperiodswithout prblm behavior increase,occurent ofthe prblmbehaviormustnaturallydecrease - Accordingto Reynolds,DRO involves reinforcement fornotresponding.Youwillreinforce the absence of the problem behavior.Althoughother behaviorsmayoccur when the problem behavior isnot occurring,youdon’t identifyother behaviortoreinforce inplaceof the problem behavior Implementing DRO - Identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior:youmusteliminatethereinforcer maint
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