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PSYB45H3 (1,059)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 15: Differential Reinforcement This chapter describes differential reinforcement procedures which involve applying reinforcement and extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behavior or to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviors. There are three types of differential reinforcement procedures: differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL). Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is a behavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior (reinforcement) and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors (extinction). The desirable behavior is reinforced each time it occurs. This results in an increase in the future probability of the desirable behavior. Any undesirable behaviors that may interfere with the desirable behavior are not reinforced. This results in a decreases in the future probability of the undesirable behaviors. An Example Using DRA. Mrs. Williams lives in a nursing home and whenever she saw a nurse she would start to complain about the food, her room, other patients etc. The nurse always listened politely and tried to comfort Mrs. Williams, it seemed her complaining was getting worse. Antecedent: A nurse is present Response: Mrs. William complains Consequence: A nurse provides attention. Outcome: Mrs. Williams is likely to complain each time a nurse is present. The psychologist decided that the nurses should increase their attention when Mrs. Williams said positive things to reinforce these behaviors. (Reinforcement) Antecedent: A nurse is present Response: Mrs. Williams say positive things Consequence: Nurse provides attention Outcome: In the future, Mrs. William is more likely to say positive things when a nurse is present. www.notesolution.com
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