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PSYB51H3 (301)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Chapter 9: Hearing: Physiology and Psychoacoustics The Function of hearing Loudness and pitch are fundamental sound qualities Each sense developed at diff time to diff challenges What is Sound? Sound created when objects vibrate o Object vibration medium molecule vibration Medium pressure change Medium e.g. Earths atmosphere As distance, pressure pattern but amt of pressure o E.g. Fig. 9.1 Speed of sound wave depends on medium o density, speed e.g. sound through air is 350ms vs. air 1500 ms sonic boom is when speed catches up to front of sound waves Basic Qualities of Sound Waves: Frequency and Amplitude amplitude: amt of pressure change o defines loudness (perceived intensity) intensity, loudness intensity: amt of sound energy on area frequency: times pressure fluctuates o defines pitch freq, pitch o in waves, space between each wave Hertz (Hz): measure of freq. o 1 Hz = 1 cycles Humans can hear from 20 to 20,000 Hz approx Decibels (dB): measure physical intensity of sound. Uses ratio btw 2 sound pressure o e.g. 10: 1 sound ratio = 20dB, where 1 is faintest sound heard dB = 20 log (ppo) o where p = intensity o p = ref pressure, 0.0002 dynecm 2 0 Sine Waves, Complex Tones, and Fourier Analysis sine wavespure tone: Waveform, variation as fn of t is sine fn o air pressure changing continuously but with same freq period: time for 1 cycle of sine wave www.notesolution.com
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