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PSYB51H3 (301)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 book notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

PSYB51:Chapter 2: The First stops in Vision Chapter 2: Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation: it is energy produced by vibrations of electrically charged materials. There are two ways to view light o Wave: an oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one particle or point to another without causing any permanent displacement of the medium, o Photon: a quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation demonstrating both particle and wave properties Visible light has wavelengths between 400-700 nanometres. Once light reaches the atmosphere from the sun there are 5 things that can happen to it. 1. Absorbed: a. To take up light, noise, or energy and not transmit it at all. 2. Scatter: a. To disperse light in an irregular fashion 3. Reflect: a. To redirect something that strikes a surface especially light, sound, or heat usually back towards its point of origin. b. Light coloured objects tend to reflect off more light then dark coloured objects. 4. Transmit: a. To convey something from one place to another. Its neither absorbed or reflected 5. Refracted: a. To alter the course of a wave of energy that passes into something from another medium , as water does to light entering it from the air. b. To measure the degree of refraction in a lens or eye. Eyes that see light Sensing light is important, it is even important for single cell organisms, because detection of light can help their survival. www.notesolution.com How ever eyes on the other hand go beyond detection of light, they can form an image o Image: A picture or likeness Parts of the eye Cornea: o This is the first layer of the eye. o This provides a window to the world because it is transparent. o It contains lots of transparent sensory nerve endings. o If you scratch your cornea, you tear up but it will regenerate within 24 hours. Aqueous humour: o The watery fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye. o A fluid derived from blood fills the space immediately behind the cornea , supplying oxygen and nutrients to and removing waste from the cornea and the crystalline lens Crystalline lens: The lens inside the eye that enables changing focus It has no blood supply The shape of the lens is controlled by ciliary muscles Pupil: o The dark circular opening at the center of the iris in the eye where light enters the eye. Iris: o The coloured part of the eye, consisting of muscular diaphragms surrounding the pupil and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil Vitreous humor: o The transport fluid that fills vitreous chamber in the posterior part of the eye Retina: www.notesolution.com
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