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PSYB51H3 (301)
Chapter 8

PSYB51 Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Chapter 8: Attention and Scene Perception - The retinal array contains far more information than we can process - Processing everything, everywhere, all at once requires a brain that will not fit into the human had Attention - Any of the very large set of selective processes in the brain. To deal with the impossibility of handling all inputs at once, the nervous system has evolved mechanisms that are able to restrict processing to a subset of things, places, ideas, or moments in time Overt attention, covert attention, divided attention, sustained attention Selective attention - The form of attention involved in processing is restricted to a subset of the possible stimuli - Potential mechanisms operate in all of is the senses Selection in Space - A queuing experiment by Michael Pozner in which an individual fixates on a central point and must respond as soon as possible when a probe appears The measure of interest is the average reaction time (a measure of the time from the onset of a stimulus to a response) - In another trial of this experiment a queue is provided during the waiting period; it can be a peripheral or a symbolic cue it can be a valid or invalid cue - Reaction times are slower with an invalid queue than in the control condition because the subject was fooled into attending to the wrong stimulus - Stimulus onset a synchrony the time between the onset of one stimulus and the onset of another Its SOA is 0 ms, the cue and probe appear simultaneously; if this time increases to about 150 ms, the magnitude of the cueuing effect from a valid peripheral cue increases and after that the effect of the cue levels off - Symbolic cues take longer to work presumably because we need to do some work to interpret the arrow The Spotlight of Attention - The best evidence suggests that attention is not moving from point to point the way a physical spotlight would move Visual Search - Visual search - looking for a target in a display containing distracting elements - The beach world the display shows a different set size the number of items in the visual display; as a rule it is harder to find a target as the number of items increases 1 www.notesolution.com
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