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Chapter 10

PSYB51 Chapter 10

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Matthias Niemeier

Chapter 10: Hearing in the Environment Sound Localization - Even though sound travels very fast, the pressure wave will not arrive at both ears at the same time - The intensity of sound is greater at the ear closer to the source Interaural Time Difference - Interaural time difference the difference in time between a sound arriving at one ear vs the other We tell where a sound is coming from by determining which ear receives the sound first - Azimuth: the angle of a sound source on the horizontal plane relative to a pnt in the center of the head between the ears. It is measured in degrees, with 0 degrees being straight ahead. The angle increases clockwise toward the right, with 180 degrees being directly behind Figure 10.4 page 251 Red circles indicate positions from which a sound will reach the right ear before the left ear; blue circles show positions from which a sound will reach the left ear first. The size and brightness of each circle represent the magnitude of the ITD - ITDs are largest about 640 microseconds when sound come directly from the left or directly from the right A sound coming from directly in front of or directly behind ITD = 0 A sound source located at 60 degrees produce an ITD of 480 microseconds; at an angle of -20 degrees an ITD of -200 microseconds Physiology of ITDs - Binaural input enters almost every stage of the auditory nervous system after the auditory nerve. As information moves upward through the system, with every additional synapse the timing between the two ears is likely to become less precise - The medial superior olives are the first places in the auditory system where inputs from both ears converge There are neurons here whose firing rates increase in response to very brief time difference - The interpretation of ITDs is critically dependent on the size of the head Interaural Level Difference - Interarual level difference the difference in level bw a sound arriving at one ear vs the other www.notesolution.com
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