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PSYB51H3 (301)
Chapter 11

PSYB51 Chapter 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Chapter 11: Music and Speech Perception Music - When we hear pleasant sounding chords preceding a word, we are faster to respond that a word such as charm is positive, and are slower to respond to a negative word - Music has deep psychological effects When people must listen to disagreeable music, their levels of serotonin actually rise Blood flow increases in brain regions that are thought to be involved in reward and motivation Musical Notes - One of the most important characteristic of any acoustic signal is frequency - Brain structures that process sounds are tonotopically organized - Pitch the psychological aspect of sound related mainly to the fundamental frequency Tone Height and Tone Chroma - Octave the interval bw two sound frequencies having a ratio of 2:1 - The set of notes (scale) used commonly in western music is called equal temperament - Musical pitch is typically described as having two dimensions Tone height a sound quality corresponding to the level of pitch. Tone height is monotopically related to frequency Tone chroma a sound quality shared by tones that have the same octave interval - We can visualize musical pitch as a helix - Neurons in the auditory nerve signal frequency both by their location in the chochlea (place) and by the timing of their firing (temporal) - For frequencies higher than 5kHz, pitch discrimination becomes appreciably worse because only place coding can be used - A sequence of pure tones with frequencies greater than 5kHz does not convey a melody very well Chords - Chord a combo of three or more musical notes with different pitches played simultaneously - Consonant chords are combos of notes in which the ratios bw the notes frequencies are simple Example: 2:1, 3:2 (perfect fifth), 4:3 (perfect fourth) 1 www.notesolution.com
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