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Chapter 7

PSYB51 Detailed chapter notes (Chapter 7)

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Matthias Niemeier

Chapter 7: Motion Perception - Shape, location in space, color fundamental perceptual dimensions - Motion as a low-level perceptual phenomenon cells in primary visual cortex selectively respond to motion in one particular direction Motion aftereffect (MAE) - The illusion of motion of a stationary object that occurs after prolonged exposure to a moving object - Just as color after effects are caused by opponent processes for color vision, the motion aftereffect is caused by opponent processes for motion detection Computation of Visual Motion - Page 171 look over - Barlow and Levick: AND gate Cell X fires if and only if both its inputs (B and D) are firing simultaneously, and it passes this message on to the motion detection cell M. Almost certainly not correct Adelson and Bergen (more elaborate version): based on linear filters that delay, sum, and then are followed by nonlinearities seems closer to the truth. - Our motion detector is velocity sensitive in their direction sensitive Apparent Motion - One possible objection to this neuronal circuit is that it does not, in fact, require continuous motion in order to fire - Apparent motion the (illusory) impression of smooth motion resulting from the rapid alternation of objects that appear in different locations in rapid succession First demonstrated by Sigmund Exner in 1875 The Correspondence and Aperture Problems - Aperture an opening that allows only a partial view of the object - Correspondence problem (motion) the problems faced by the motion detection system of knowing which feature in frame 2 corresponds to a particular feature in frame 1 example on page 173 figure 7.5 - Aperture problem the fact that when a moving object is viewed through an aperture (or a receptive field), the direction of motion of a local feature or part of the objects may be ambiguous. - Every V1 cell sees the world through a small aperture therefore none of the V1 cells can tell with certainty which visual elements correspond to one another when an object moves, even when no mask is present. - Solution to this problem is to have another set of neurons listen to the V1 neurons integrate the potentially conflicting signals. 1 www.notesolution.com
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