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Canada (158,081)
Psychology (9,549)
PSYB51H3 (301)
Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1 psyb51.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Psyb51 CHAPTER 1: - only your own sensory experience is accessible to you - ability to detect pressure of a finger and turn detection into a pirvate experience is an example of sensation - perception is the act of giving meaning to those detected sensations o how you understand the sensation - everything we feel/ think/ do is based on sensation and perception - French philosopher, Etienne Bonnot de Condillac askedhis readers to imagine the mental life of a statue with no senses and he concluded that the statue would have no mental life - Sensation and perception must be approached as a scientific approach METHOD 1: Thresholds - measuring the most extreme level and smallest level that you can feel something safely METHOD 2: Scaling - Measuring private experience - Qualia/quale: a private conscious experience of sensation or perception - We have no direct way to experience someone else’s experiences METHOD 3: Signal detection theory: Measuring Difficult decisions - decisions can be studied scientifically METHOD 4: Sensory Neuroscience - perception of the world depends on the activity of our sensory nerves at least as much as it depends on the world itself METHOD 5: Neuroimaging - image of the mind - binocular rivalry- if one image is presented in both eyes (house and face) You will either see the house or youwill see the face.. not both THRESHOLDS AND DAWN OF PSYCHOPHYSICS: - gustav Fechner o sometimes considered to be the true founder of experimental psychology Psyb51  usually given to Wilhelm wundt o dualism: idea that the mind has an existence separate from the material world of the body o materialism: idea that the only thing that exists is matter and that all things including the mind and consciousness are the results of interaction b/n bits of matter o Fechner had an idea of panpsychism, which is the idea that the mind exists as a property of all matter that is that all matter has consciousness - Page 6 - Fechner took on the job of explaining the relation b/n the spiritual and material worlds :mind and body o Used mathematics - Goal was to formally describe relationship b/n sesation and energy - Called both his methods and theory psychophysics - Fechner was inspired by findings of one of his colleagues , ERNST WEBER o Anatomist and physiologist who was interested in touch o Weber tested accuracy  2 point threshold: smallest distance required between two points for person to feel o JND: just noticeable difference  When initial weight is light, easier to detect difference, when initial weight is heavier, harder to detect difference  Also called “difference threshold” o Weber noticed JNDS differ in a systematic way  Weber fractions: constant of proportionality in weber’s law o Weber’s law: principle describing the relationship b/n stimulus and resulting sensation that says the JND is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus - Fechner found what he was looking for - Way to describe the relationship b/n mind and matter - Fechner assumed that the smallest detectable change in a stimulus could be considered a unit of the mind - Created fechner’s law: S=k log R - Fechner invented new ways to measure what peoplesee, hear and feel - Absolute threshold: minimum intensity of a stimulus that can be detected - method of constant stimuli is simple to use o can be somewhat inefficient o more efficient = method of limits  experimenter begins with the same set of stimuli  method in which particular dimension of a stimulus or the diff b/n 2 stimuli is varied incrementally until participant responds differently - method of adjustment classic measure o just like method of limits Psyb51 o subject is one who steadily increases or decreases the intensity of the stimulus o much like day to day activities - magnitude estimation : participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli - steven’s power law: s=aI b o relationship bn stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation
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