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Chapter 2

PSYB51 Chapter 2 Definitions

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Matthias Niemeier

Chapter 2 Definitions • wave: an oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one particle or point to another without causing any permanent displacement of the medium • photon: a quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation demonstrating both particle and wave properties • absorb: to take up light, noise, or energy and not transmit it at all scatter: to disperse light in an irregular fashion • • reflect: to redirect something that strikes a surface- especially light, sound, or heat- usually back toward its point of origin • transmit: to convey something (ex. light) from one place to thing to another • refract: 1. to alter the course of a wave of energy that passes into something from another medium, as water does to light entering it from the air. 2. to measure the degree of refraction in a lens or eye • image: a picture or likeness • cornea: the transparent “window” into the eyeball • transparent: allowing light to pass through with no interruption so that objects on the other side can be clearly seen • aqueous humor: the watery fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye • crystalline lens: the lens inside the eye that enables changing focus • pupil: the dark circular opening at the center of the iris in the eye, where light enters the eye • iris: the colored part of the eye, consisting of a muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil • vitreous humor: the transparent fluid that fills the vitreous chamber in the posterior part of the eye • retina: a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye that contains rods and cones, which receive an image from the lens and send it to the brain through the optic nerve • accommodation: the process by which the eye changes its focus (in which the lens gets fatter as gaze is directed toward nearer objects) • presbyopia: literally “old sight”. The loss of near vision because of insufficient accommodation • cataract: opacity of the crystalline lens • emmetropia: the condition in which there is no refractive error, because the refractive power of the eye is perfectly matched to the length of the eyeball • myopia: a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused in front of the retina and distant objects cannot be seen sharply • hyperopia: a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused behind the retina • astigmatism: a visual defect caused by the unequal curving of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, usually the cornea • transduced: referring to the conversion from one form of energy (ex. light) to another (ex. electricity) • fundus: the back layer of the retina- what the eye doctor sees through an ophthalmoscope • photoreceptors: light- sensitive receptors in the retina • rods: photoreceptors specialized for night vision cones: photoreceptors specialized for daylight vision, fine visual acuity, and colour • • duplex: in reference to the retina, consisting of two parts: the rods and cones, which operate under different conditions • outer segment: the part of the photoreceptor that contains photopigment molecules • inner segment: the part of the photoreceptor that lies between the outer segment and the cell nucleus • synaptic terminal: the location where axons terminate at the synapse for transmission of information by release of a chemical transmitter • chromophore: the light- catchi
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