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PSYB51H3 (306)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - study notes

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Matthias Niemeier

CH 10 HEARING IN ENVIRONMENT SOUND LOCALIZATION Unlike vision, sound enters ears in exactly same place regardless of where owl is, for vision u see the owl and if it was in your right visual field then it will end up in left retina For most position in space, sound source b closer to 1 ear than to other. Thus 2 potential types of info for determining source of sound, localization cues. 1) pressure wave will not arrive at both ears at same time, it arrives sooner to ear closer to source. 2) intensity of sound is greater @ear closer 2 source. INTERAURAL TIME DIFFERENCE ITD = diff in time b a sound arriving at one ear vs. Other. Azimuth = angle of a sound source on horizontal plane relative to pt in centre of head b the ears. Azimuth is measured in degrees w 0 being straight ahead. Angle increases clockwise towards right with 180 degrees being directly behind. ITD are largest about 640 mircoseconds (us) when sounds come directly from left or directly from right. If a sound comes from directly in front or behind it produces an ITD of 0 cu sound reaches both ears at same time (see p252) so itz 0 degree infront with 0us and then 20degree on right, 60 degree, 90 degree, 120, 160, 180, with respectfully 200us, 480us, 640us, 480us, 200us, 0us. On the left it will be -20, -60, -90 degrees with -200us, -480, -640 us. Listeners can detect interaural delays of as little as 10us which is good enough to detect the angle of a sound source to within 1 degree As info moves upward through system, with every additional synapse, timing b 2 ears is likely to become less precise. MSO = medial superior olive =a relay station in brain stem where inputs form both ears contribute to detection of interaural time difference. This is the place where ITD detectors are located. Found neurons in MSOs whose firing rates increase in response to very brief time differences between inputs from the 2 ears of cats. Like binocular neurons formation, ITD detectors form during first few months of life. The interpretation of ITDs, associating a given ITD wgiven angle is critically dependent on size of head, so our ITD interpretation mechanisms are not prewired in babies cuz bbs heads grow INTERAURAL LEVEL DIFFERENCE 2 cue to sound localization = ILD = diff in level (intensity) bw a sound arriving at one ear vs the other. Sounds are more intense at ear closer to sound source cuz head partially blocks sound pressure wave from reaching opposite ear. ILD similar to ITD: sounds are more intense at ear that is closer to sound source; ILD is largest at 90 and -90 degree and it is nonexistent at 0 degree and 180; b these 2 extremes, ILD generally correlates wangle of www.notesolution.com
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