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Canada (162,165)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYB51H3 (306)
Chapter 9

chapter 9

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Matthias Niemeier

PSYB51CHAPTER 9 HEARING PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOACHOSTICS What Is Sound Basic Qualities of Sound Waves Frequency and Amplitude Amplitude Frequency Pitch The magnitude of displacement increase or For sound the number of times per second that The psychological aspect of sound related decrease of a sound pressure wave or of a head a pattern of pressure change repeats mainly to the fundamental frequency movement eg angular velocity linear Hertz Hz Decibel dB acceleration tilt A unit of measure for frequency One hertz A unit of measure of the physical intensity of equals one cycle per second sound Decibels defined the difference between Intensity The amount of sound energy falling on a unit two sounds as the ratio bw two sound pressures Loudness area such as a square centimetre Each 101 sound pressure ration equals 20 dB The psychological aspect of sound related to and a 1001 ratio equals 40dB perceived intensity or magnitudeTo describe the differences between amplitude of sound ranges Sine Waves Complex Tones and Fourier Analysis Sine wave or pure tone Complex tone Harmonic spectrum The waveform for which variation as a function A sound wave consisting of more than one The spectrum of a complex sound in which of time is a sine function sinusoidal component of different frequencies energy i at integer multiples of the fundamentalAir pressure in a sine wave changes frequency Fourier analysis continuously at the same frequencyTypically created by a simple vibrating source A mathematical theorem by which an sound canVery rare in realitybe divided into a set of sine waves Combining Fundamental frequency these sine waves will produce the original The lowestfrequency component of a complex Period The time or space required for one cycle of a sound periodic sound first harmonic repeating waveform Spectrum Timbre A representation of the relative energy The psychological sensation by which a listener Phase The relative position of two or more sine waves intensity present at each frequency can judge that two sounds with the same For sounds the phase is the relative position inUsed in summarizing Fourier analysis loudness and pitch are dissimilar Timbre time showing the intensity of each sine wave quality is conveyed by harmonics and other high frequency found in complex tone frequencies Basic Structure of the Mammalian Auditory System Outer ear Pinna The outer funnellike part of the earMain purposeis to insulate the structure at its end the tympanic membrane from damage Tympanic membrane ear drum Ear canal The canal that conducts sound vibrations from The eardrum a thin sheet of skin at the end of the outer ear canal The tympanic membrane vibrates in the pinna to the tympanic membrane and response to sound prevents damage to the tympanic membraneMiddle EarOuter ear Middle ear The external soundgathering portion of the ear consisting of the pinna andAn airfilled chamber containing the middles bones or ossicles The middle the ear canal ear conveys and amplifies vibration from the tympanic membrane to the oval windowOssicles Stapes Three tiny bones of the middle ear malleus incus and stapes One of ossicles Connected to the incus on one st Smallest bone in the human body amplify sound vibrations in two ways 1 joints bw the bones are end the stapes presses against the oval window hinged in a way that makes them work like levers which increases the amount o pressure change by 13of the cochlea on the other end nd2 NRG transmitted to the inner ear is by concentrating energy from a larger to smaller surface area Oval window tympanic membrane is 18x as large as the oval windowThe flexible opening to the cochlea throughTympanic membraneossiclesoval windowvestibular canal bulge formsapex excesses which the stapes transmits vibration to the fluidhelicotremacochlear base tympanic canal round window insideAlso play an important role for loud noises as well stapediustensor tympaniacoustic reflex Inner ear Malleus A hollow cavity in the temporal bone of the One of ossicles The malleus receives vibration from the tympanic membrane and is attached to the incus skull and the structures within the cavity the cochlea and vestibular canals Incus The middle ossiclesThe incus connects the malleus and the stapes
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