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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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Matthias Niemeier

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Chapter 6: Space Perception and Binocular Vision Realism: philosophical position arguing that there is real world to sense Positivism: all we really have to go on is evidence of senses, so world might be nothing more than an elaborate hallucination Euclidean: geometry of the world o Parallel lines remain parallel as they are extended in space, objects maintain some size and shape as they move around in space, internal angles of a triangle always add to 180 degrees, so forth Retinal images is non-Euclidean Becomes non-Euclidean when 3D world projects onto curved, 2D surface of retina Retina area occupied by object gets smaller as objects moves farther away from eyeball Reconstruct world from 2 non-Euclidean inputs: 2 distinct retinal images i.e. leftright index fingers o 2 retinal images always differ because retinas are in slightly different places Visual field about 190 degree from left to right, 110 degree by both eyes Binocular summation: combination of signals from each eye in ways that make performance on many tasks better with both eyes than with either eye alone Binocular disparity: differences between 2 retinal images of same scene o Disparity basis for stereopsis, a vivid perception of 3D of world that is not available with monocular vision Stereopsis: ability to use binocular disparity as cue to depth o Not necessary condition for depth perception or space perception Monocular depth cues: depth cue available even when world viewed with one eye alone Binocular depth cue: depth cue on information from both eyes o i.e. stereopsis in humans, but convergence and ability of 2 eyes to see more of an object than one eye sees are also binocular depth cues Monocular Cues to Three-Dimensional Space Occlusion Gives information about the relative position of objects Present at almost every visual scene Accidental viewpoints: shape can happen to be shaped like that and not blocked by another shape Occlusion is a non-metrical depth cue: information about depth order but not depth magnitude Metrical depth cue: provides quantitative information about distance in 3D Size and Position Cues Image on retina formed by object out in world gets smaller as object gets farther away Projective geometry: describes how world is projected onto surface o I.e. shadow is projection of object onto a surface Relative size: comparison of size between items without knowing the absolute size of either one Texture gradient: items of same size form smaller images when they are further away o Appear to form a surface in depth Relative height: observation that objects at different distances from viewer on ground plane will form images at different heights in retinal image o Objects further away will be seen as higher in image Familiar size: knowledge of typical size of objects like humans or pennies Relative metrical depth cues: object A was twice as far away as object B without providing information about absolute distance to either A or B Absolute metrical depth cue: absolute information about the distance in 3D (his nose sticks out 4cm in front of his face) www.notesolution.com
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