Textbook Notes (368,434)
Canada (161,878)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB57H3 (366)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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George Cree

What it means to perceive? Sensation and perception provide the raw material for cognition Our perception is not a simple registration of sensory stimuli but sophisticated cognitive processes work on the sensory information almost immediately and produce the brains interpretation, our existing knowledge guides these dynamic processes The sensory stimuli are typically ambiguous and open to multiple interpretations The two problems with sensation and perception: 1. Sensory input does not contain enough information to explain our perception 2. The world presents us with too much sensory input to include into our coherent perceptions at any single moment We do not just register the picture as a whole when we see an image, but we see only relatively fine details in a small region point of fixation. Searching is one of the ways to deal with excess input 1 www.notesolution.com We engage in selective attention which allows us to choose part of the current sensory input for further processing at the cost of other aspects on input In conclusion, whether too much or too little, cognitive processes are necessary to interpret and understand the material we encounter How it works: The case of visual perception Vision, like hearing, is a distance sense that helps us sense objects without touching them. It tells us what is out there and where is it. Our senses also give us a nudge towards action e.g. where to grab the object from Visual perception takes in information about the properties and locations of objects so we can make sense of it and interact with our surroundings Structure of the visual system: The pattern of light intensity, edges and other features in the visual scene form an image on the retina Light hits the photoreceptors and nerve cells at the back of the eye [job: light gets converted into electrochemical signals] transmitted to the brain via optic nerves (each optic nerve is a bundle of long axons of ganglion cells in the retina optic nerve axons contact with LGC (lateral geniculate nucleus) in thalamus; a structure lying on the surface of the brain Primary visual cortexstriate cortex host of visual areas as well as areas that are not exclusively visual in function. Beyond the primary visual cortex, 2 pathways can be identified: a. Dorsal pathway: reaches up into parietal lobes and is important in processing information about where items are located and how we act on them e.g. touch them b. Ventral pathway: reaches down into parietal lobe and processes information that leads to recognition and identification of objects Top-Down and Bottom-Up processing Most visual areas that send output to another area also receive input from that area i.e. they have reciprocal connections www.notesolution.com
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