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Chapter 1

Memory Chapter 1.docx

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Memory & Cognition Chapter 1  Everything we feel or say depends on our cognition, what we know, what we remember, and how we think The Years of Introspection  According to Wundt and Titchener, psychology needed to be concerned with the study of conscious mental events ie. Feelings, thoughts, perception, recollection  Introspection is observing and recording our own mental lives o Can only study conscious experiences, not unconscious thoughts o Introspection leads to opinions, not facts, because results are not testable e.g. one person saying their head hurts more than another’s The Year of Behaviorism  Studying behaviorism allows one to observe actions and record them, making this objective rather than opinionated  One problem is that ones behavior cant just be explained only with reference to a certain stimuli, how one understands or interprets a situation is also a factor o This is more introspective because they are thoughts  To fully predict response, you must refer to the stimulus and the persons knowledge and understanding of said stimulus  E.g. asking a friend to pass the “ salt” The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution  People act based on how they perceive the situation  Immanuel Kant introduced the transcendental method o Begin with observable facts, then work backwards from these observations; what underlying causes led to particular effects  E.g. size 11 footprint at a crime scene tells us what size his shoes were, without actually observing it o This method allows a scientist to come up with a hypothesis, and then rigorously test it and gives assurance that the theory is correct Working Memory: Some Initial Observations  Working memory holds information in an easily accessible form so it becomes available when you need it. o Hypothesized to have a small storage capacity Working Memory: A Proposal o Baddeley & Hitch proposed a model by stipulating that working memory is not a single entity, but rather that it has several parts o Called it the Working memory system  At the heart of this system is the central executive, that runs the show and does the real work  “
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