Textbook Notes (363,550)
Canada (158,417)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB57H3 (369)
all (4)
Chapter 2

Memory chapter 2.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough

Memory & Cognition: Chapter 2 Capgras Syndrome: An Initial Example  Rare on its own, but is one of the accompaniments to Alzheimer’s syndrome, so normally associated with older people o Can also result from various injuries to the brain  Fully able to recognize people in their world ie. Husband, father, mother, but are convinced they are imposters o Often insist there are slight differences, like a slight change in personality  Facial recognition involves two separate systems, o one leads to a cognitive appraisal ( I know what my father looks like, you look like him) o The other is more emotional ( you look familiar to me and trigger a warm response in me)  In Capgras Syndrome, this is disrupted which leads to intellectual identification without the familiarity response  E.g. You look like my father but trigger no familiarity, so you’re someone else Neural Basis for Capgras Syndrome:  Neuroimaging techniques allow researchers to take 3D images of the brain o One form comes from PET scans  One site of damage is in the temporal lobe, on the right side of the head  This damage disrupts circuits involving the amygdala, which serves as an emotional elevator, helping organism detect stimuli associated with threat or danger o So amygdala makes judgment of “ you look familiar” o Also abnormalities in the frontal lobe, specifically in the right prefrontal cortex  With damage to frontal lobe, patients are less able to perceive what is real and what isn’t, which makes them come up with bizarre thoughts What do we Learn From Capgras Syndrome  Teaches us that the amygdala plays a crucial role in familiarity  Helps people remember emotional events of their lives  Decision making  Capgras syndrome tells us that the emotional elevator works in a fashion separate from our evaluation of factual information o Also tells us that recognition requires multiple brain areas The Principal Structures of the Brain  Human brain weighs about 3-4 pounds; roughly the size of a small melon o Contains trillion nerve cells Hindbrain, Midbrain, Forebrain  Hindbrain sits atop the spinal cord and includes structures for controlling life functions e.g. rhythm of heart beat and rhythm of breathing o Maintains the body’s posture and balance, and regulates brain’s level of alertness o Largest area is Cerebellum  Investigators believed the main role was coordination of body movements and balance  Also plays other roles, damage can cause problems in spatial reasoning, discriminating sounds, and integrating input received from various sensory systems  Midbrain also coordinates movement; precise movement of eyes o Relays auditory information from the ears to the areas of the brain where the information is processed and translated o Also regulates experience of pain  Forebrain is the largest region of the brain o The cortex is the only visible area in pictures  thin covering on the outer surface; about 3mm thick  constitutes 80% of the brain; however it is crumpled which is why the brain looks wrinkly o the valleys in the wrinkles are deep grooves that divide the brain into different regions  deepest groove is the longitudinal fissure which runs from the front of the brain to the back, separates left cerebral hemisphere from the right  other fissures divide the cortex into 4 lobes:  1) Frontal Lobe forms the front of the brain- behind the forehead  2) The central fissure divides frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, the top of the brain  3) the bottom of the frontal lobe is marked by lateral fissure, below this is the temporal lobe  4) Occipital lobe is the back of the brain, connected to the parietal and temporal lobe Subcortical Structures  Hidden underneath the cortex, are the subcortical parts of the forebrain o Thalamus- relay station for all sensory information going to the cortex o Hypothalamus is under the thalamus, and controls motivated behavior such as eating, drinking, sexual activity o Limbic system surrounds the thalamus and hypothalamus  Contains both amygdala and hippocampus; both underneath the cortex in temporal lobe and are essential for learning and memory and emotional processing o Subcortical structures come in pairs, hippocampus on the left side and right side, left side amygdala and right side and the cortex  Differences in function between left side and right side structures  Both halves work together, the functioning of one side is closely integrated with the other side  Integration made possible by commissures, thick bundles of fibers that carry information back and forth between two hemispheres  Largest commissure is the corpus callosum Neuroimaging Techniques  A lesion, is a specific area of damage o Lesion to the hippocampus produces memory problems but not language disorders o Lesion on occipital cortex produces problems in vision but not other functions o Consequence of lesion also depends on which hemisphere  Damage to left side of frontal lobe produces disruption of language, but damage to right doesn’t have this effect  Patients with split brains have severed their corpus callosum, resulting in the disrupting of communi
More Less

Related notes for PSYB57H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.