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Canada (158,217)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

Chapter 2 – The neural basis for Cognition Capgras Syndrome: An initial example Capgras syndrome is an interesting phenomenon that is rare and occurs to the elderly or through brain damage. The disorder is characterized by the patient thinking that all close contacts of the person are actually well-trained imposters in disguise. “You look like my father, you act like my father, you speak like my father, but you aren’t my father WHO ARE YOU?” This occurs because there are 2 appraisals which approve that a person is such and such.  Cognitive appraisal – perception of an individual (look, sound)  factual  Emotional appraisal – leads to certainty, triggers an emotional response (warm feeling) PET scans reveal that this disorder is a result of abnormalities of certain brain structures and regions. Primarily, in the temporal lobe (right side), the amygdala, right prefrontal cortex. Likewise, fMRI’s reveal that that there is low brain activity in the frontal cortex which could cause a decreased ability to distinguish between internal events (thoughts) from external events (voices) OR what is real and what is not The principal structures of the brain The brain contains 3 main regions  hindbrain, midbrain and the forebrain The hindbrain contains structures that are most crucial for basic life processes such as breathing and heartbeat. The largest area of the hindbrain is the cerebellum which is responsible for bodily movements, spatial reasoning, discriminating sounds and integrating the input received from sensory modules. The midbrain is essential for coordinating movements and relaying information in and out of the brain. Finally, the forebrain (mostly the cortex) is responsible for higher level processes and cognition Aside from these 3 main regions, there are also subcortical structures which lay below the forebrain  Thalamus – relay station  Hypothalamus – 4F’s  Limbic system – amygdala and hippocampus  responsible for leaning, memory and emotional processing It is important to realize that each structure comes in pairs, and communication between these pairs occurs through another structure called = commissures (the corpus callosum is the largest commissure) There are also many different types of neuroimaging methods available to us today:  Computerized axial tomography (CT ) – uses X-rays to study brain anatomy  Positron emission tomography (PET) – blood flow through each region of the brain  MRI – magnetic properties of atoms in that area, contains very detailed pictures  fMRI – oxygen content in the blood flowing in each area The visual system Light  Cornea  Lens  Retina (light sensitive tissue) The cornea and the lens focus the image that is being cast on the retina. On the retina there are 2 types of photoreceptors – cells that respond directly to incoming light The first – rods – sensitiv
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