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George Cree (102)
Chapter 3

PSYB57 - Chapter 3.docx

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George Cree

Chapter 3 – Recognizing Objects Visual Perception Vision is a very dominant sensory modality  it has been given the most brain area, we trust it amongst other senses, and is reflected in many parts of behaviour But how do we do any of this?  Form perception – seeing the basic shape and size of an object  Object recognition – identifying what the object is, being able to categorize and being able to integrate information processed in the past with information being processed in the present Previously we’ve known visual information to follow the general stimulus/response formula. However, a group of psychologists called the Gestalt Psychologist (sum of its parts) understand visual perception in terms of “beyond the information given”. The argument present by the thereof suggest that our perception is organized differently as compared to the stimulus inputs’ organization. They argued that perception lies within the perceiver. Examples of this are evident when looking at ambiguous figures and the “Necker cube” Likewise, it is noteworthy that the dilemma research presents us with is:  Is it the features which govern the interpretation  OR is it the interpretation that governs the feature The answer currently states it is BOTH, due to parallel processing these systems work together and communicate within each other. Only then can we ultimately become familiar with these items and ipso facto REMEMBER them Another way to understand perception is to consider the perceptual system a logical one. That is,  Perceptual systems prefer the simplest explanation  Perceptual systems seem to avoid interpretations that involve coincidences Object Recognition We recognize print similar to that which we recognize objects. We can recognize the same thing even if it appears in different forms. However, what is alternative of our perception of objects as compared to print is context. When viewing print we are very quick to analyze the context and thus base our perception in relation to the context Recognition is said to be in due to recognizing in object’s parts and that parts of that part and so on. Generally put, recognition begins with the identification of features in the input pattern (building blocks) Again, it is important to remember that features are not the features of the raw input rather they are features of the perception of that input (it’s just 2 vertical lines and 2 horizontal lines = it is a square) The advantage of such a feature-based system is:  Gives us a general building block model to work with  Causes to recognize variations of the same object  Allows us to set priority in recognition  Suggests that features is a separate step in object recognition  integrative agnosia or damage to the parietal cortex OR TMS on the parietal lobe causes misrecognition of “features” Word Recognition To measure recognition, researchers originally used a Tachistoscopic – device used to present stimuli for precisely controlled amounts of time  currently computers do this. In this device the stimulus is presented followed by a mask (random jumble of words), which is used to interrupt the person from the stimulus Most often the results show that people can recognize “familiar” words as compared to unfamiliar words (familiarity is measured by its frequency of view). Likewise, another factor influencing recognition is known as recency of view  Recency of view – the first exposure primes their second viewing (repetition priming) Another finding, known as the “word-superiority effect” states that words are easier to perceive as compared to isolated letters or in other terms it is easier to identify letters that appear within words as compared to letters themselves  HOWEVER these words must actually be words that can be pronounced not “JPSRWY” The problem with tachistoscopic testing is over-regularization errors. For example, reading TPUM as TRUM or DRUM. This again suggests that recognition is guided by or misguided by some knowledge of spelling patterns Feature Nets and Word Re
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