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Chapter 9

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB57H3
Professor
Dwayne Pare
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9Concepts and Generic Knowledge We need concepts in order to have knowledge and we need knowledge inorder to functionOur understanding of concepts is kinda like dictionary definitionsDefinitions What do we know when we know what a dog isWe all know what a dog is and our understanding of it is like our definition ie dog is a creaturea mammal has four legsbarks and wags its tail When asked about dogs they can be easily defined and identified within our knowledgewords like virtue and knowledge however was a little harder to define They had some features identified as important but till today these words dont have a definite definitionwe look closer into definitions of even simpler words like game Some games have multiple players competition fun involved and some have one player no competition and fun involved and some have people but no fun the differences between hide and seek the olympic games and solitaire but they are all still considered to be games many concepts have multiple definitions and exceptions to the well known definition which makes it known that knowledge is not simpleFamily resemblanceWe need a way to identify concepts by the similarities the categories have aka all dogs have thisas well as allowing the exceptions to the rule we proposeWe do this by keeping the content of the definition as well as being flexible with the use of the definition For instance we can say a dog is a creature that probably has fur 4 legs and barks and something without these feature is unlikely to be a dogThe way it is phrased allows us to account for the exceptions and it helps us with our definitionWittgenstein said that members of a category have family resemblanceLooking at an actual family you share features between the group even though there are no defining features that you all share Some members will have the family blond hair some will have the family green eyes but as a whole the family would have features that they sharesometimes you can have the family ideal which is a person in the family that has all the family features but in most families you dont have that but each family has something that identifies them with the othersfamily resemblance has to do with the degree rather than all or nonePrototypes and typicality effectsdefinitions can be thought about in terms of boundaries in a categoryPrototype theory this starts by specifying the centre of the category rather than the boundaries in terms of defining conceptspeople would compare the test case aka some creature with fur and 4 legs etc to the prototype case which is the representation of an ideal dog in the mind of that individualprototype would be an average of the various category members that you have encountered
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