Textbook Notes (369,072)
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Psychology (9,699)
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Dwayne Pare

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PSYB57 TEXTBOOK NOTESChapter 1 Wilhelm wundt and his students launched the new enterprise of research psychology defining their field for the first time a separate from philosophy and biology Psychology needed to be concerned largely with the study of conscious mental events feelings thoughts perceptions and recollectionsThe only way to study thoughts is for each of us to introspect or look within to observe and record the content of our own mental lives and the sequence of our own experiencesIntrospection is the study of conscious experiences and so can tell us nothing about unconscious events Data concerned with behaviour are objective data stimuli are measureable recordable physical events Beliefs wishes goals and expectations cannot be directly observed these can only be observed via introspection which is uselessA great deal of behaviours couldnt be explained with reference only to objective overt eventsThe way people act and the ways they feel are guided by how they understand or interpret the situation and not by the objective situation itselfTranscendental method being with the observable facts and then work backward from these observationsWorking memory memory you use for info that youre actively working on easily accessible formSpan test read someone a list of 4 items and have them repeat it back if they succeed then move on to 5 itemsthth Most people start making errors by the 7 or 8 letter Soundalike confusions if the letters are presented visually Having seen F people are likely to report back S they are not likely to report back the similarlooking ECentral executive is the part that runs the show and does the real work in working memory needed to analyze or interpret info Articulatory rehearsal loop repeating the numbers over and over again maintained by working memorys rehearsal loop while the central executive is free to keep reading To lunch the rehearsal loop you rely on the process of subvocalization or silent speech Phonological buffer production of auditory image is created in the inner ear Rehearsal loop requires subvocal speech and phonological bufferPeople make mistakes on the span task because theyre relying on the rehearsal loop which involves a mechanism inner ear used for hearingIf these mechanisms are used for actual speech they are not available for subvocal rehearsalMemory items are stored as sounds and so its no surprise that errors are shaped by this mode of storage Concurrent articulation task span task while saying Tah Tah Tah over and over again therefore the mechanisms are not available for other use like subvocalizationConcurrent articulation cuts memory span drastically working memory drops from 78 items to 45 items With concurrent articulation and visual presentation of the items soundalike errors are largely eliminated Rehearsal loop is only good for storage therefore if trying to draw unusual shapes the loop shouldnt be compromised Concurrent articulation blocks use of the loop but has no effect on someones ability to read brief sentences to do simple logic problems Blocking use of the loop does have an effect when youre reading more complex sentences or doing harder problems because these tasks require analysis and the storage of interim steps and require both the executive and the assistants Cognitive neuroscience study of the biological basis of cognitive functioning Anarthria inability to produce overt speech Still show soundalike confusions in their span data therefore actual muscle movement isnt needed for subvocalization Inner speech relies on the brain areas responsible for planning and controlling the muscle movements of speech and not the movements themselves Neuropsychology how various forms of brain dysfunction influence observed performance Deaf people rely on different assistant for working memory they use an inner hand instead of inner voice therefore their memory is disrupted if they are asked to wiggle a finger during the span test Chapter 2 Capgras syndrome ability to recognize people in their world but convinced that these people are not who they appear to be Results from damage to temporal lobe specifically the amygdala and the frontal lobeRecognition of all stimuli involves two separate mechanism one for factual knowledge and the other for emotional familiarity The human brain weighs 34 lbsHindbrain sits directly atop the spinal cord and includes structures that control key life functions Eg Heartbeat respiration maintain bodys overall tone posture and balance and brains alert level
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