Textbook Notes (363,140)
Canada (158,217)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB57H3 (369)
Dwayne Pare (122)
Chapter 2


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Dwayne Pare

Chapter 2 The Neural Basis for CognitionCapgras Syndrome An ExampleRare on its ownAccompaniments to Alzheimers syndrome and sometimes observed among the elderly Can result from various injuries to the brain Fully able to recognize the people in their world spouse parents friends BUT they are convinced that these people are not who they appear to be o For example real husband or real son has been kidnapped and the person in front of them must be a welltrained impostor someone impersonating their loved one o Insists that there are slight differences between the impostor and the person who was replaced such as changes in personality or tiny changes in appearance o No one else detects these differences which lead to paranoid suspicions about their loved one being replacedWhy is this occurring o Facial recognition involved two separate systems in the brainOne that leads to cognitive appraisal I know what my father looks like and I can perceive that you closely resemble himThe other to a more global emotional appraisal You look familiar to me and also trigger a warm response in me o These two appraisals leads to the certainty of recognition You are obviously my fatherIn Capgras syndrome latter emotional processing is disrupted leading to the intellectual identificationwithout the familiarity response You resemble my father but rigger no sense of familiarity so you must be someone elseThe Neural Basis for Capgras Syndrome Neuroimaging techniques allows researchers to take highquality 3D pictures of living brains without in any way disturbing the brains owner Some types of neuroimaging data provide portraits of the physical makeup of the brain o Whats where How are structures shaped or connected to each Which structures are present such as tumours and which structures are missing due to disease or birth defectsNeuroimaging suggests a link between Capgras syndrome and abnormalities in several brain areasSite of damage in Capgras patients is in the temporal lobe particularly on the right side of the head The damage disrupts circuits involving amygdala an almondshape structure that serve as an emotional evaluator helping an organism to detect stimuli associated with threat or danger Amygdala important for detecting positive stimuli indicators of safety or available rewards Damaged amygdala people with Capgras syndrome wont experience the warm sense of feeling good and safe and secure when looking at a loved ones familiar faceo Lack of emotional response is why faces dont look familiarPatients with Capgras syndrome have brain abnormalities in the frontal lobe especially in the right prefrontal cortex Prefrontal cortex is used when a person is engaged in tasks that require planning or careful analysiso Less active when someone is dreaming Reflects the absence of careful analysis of dream material which helps us understand why dreams are bizarre or illogical fMRI tracks momentbymoment activity levels in different sites of a living brain o Tells us which portion of the brain are active during the scan o Techniques allows us to know which brain region are active when a person is reading or listening to music etc o Helps draw conclusion about what the brain areas function is
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