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Chapter 3

CH.3 cognition.docx

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Dwayne Pare

CH.3 RECOGNIZING OBJECTS Form Perception  Human vision is the dominant sense  Form perception is the process where see basic shape and size of an object  Object recognition is the process through which you identify which you identity what the object is Why is Object Recognition Crucial?  OR essential to apply knowledge to the world and it is crucial to learning Beyond the Information Given  Gestalt Psychologists notes that our perception of the visual world is organized in ways that the stimulus input is not  Organization must be contributed by the perceiver, the perceptual whole is often different from the sum of its parts.  Necker Cube where ppl perceive it in different ways  Many stimuli you encounter can be reinterpreted. Little effort is needed though for a smaller number of stimuli, which easily and naturally lend themselves to reinterpretation. These figures are called reversible or bistable because you can interpret them 2 ways  Drawing is neutral with regard to figure/ground organization, the determination of what is the figure (depicted object, displayed against a background) and what is the ground. The perceiver contain information and it varies The Gestalt Principles  It is wrong to argue that reversible figures are special, designed to support multiple interpretations and perceivers play a smaller role with other, more natural stimuli because many stimuli are ambiguous and in need of interpretation  Even with an ordinary scene, perception goes beyond the information given since we imagine what the rest of the image would have looked like.  Perception is guided by principles of proximity and similarity. If within the visual scene, you see elements that are close to each other or elements that resemble each other and assume these elements are parts of the same object  Another assumption is that contours are smooth, not jagged, and you avoid interpretation that involve coincidences. The shape in the right positions. (Figure 3.5)  Everyone’s perceptions are guided by the same principles and that’s why you generally perceive the world the same way as others  Gestalt principles: similarity is grouped, proximity, good continuation, closure (intact triangle, closed figures), simplicity (simplest interpretation) [Figure 3.4] Organization and Features  Perception in 2 broad steps: 1. We collect information about the stimulus so we know what corners or angle or curves are contained in the input. Once we gathered the raw data, we interpret this information, “go beyond the information given” deciding how the form is laid out in depth, deciding what is figure and what is ground.  The above is wrong because our interpretation of the input sometimes happens before we start cataloguing the input’s basic features, not after.  Interpretation, not the features that must be first or features must be in place before an interpretation is offered.  The brain areas that analyze a pattern’s basic features do their work at the same time as the brain areas analyzing a pattern’s large scale configuration and these brain areas interact, so that perception of the features is guided by configuration, and analysis of configuration is guided by features. Hence neither features or interpretation goes first but instead they both work together Object Recognition Recognition: Some Early Considerations  Influence of recognition could come from the stimulus itself where features are in view. This is called stimulus driven or bottom up influences  Other influences come from you rather than stimulus itself. It comes from your knowledge and are called knowledge driver or top down influences Features  Recognition begins with identification of visual features in the input pattern- the vertical lines, curves, diagonals, and so on  Ppl are fast and efficient when searching for a target defined by a simple feature like a green shape in a field of red shapes but much slower when searching for objects with a combination of features  Damage to parietal cortex can lead to a disorder known as integrative agnosia- ppl appear relatively normal in tasks requiring them simply to detect particular features in a display. These ppl are markedly impaired in tasks that require them to judge how the features are bound together to form complex objects. It is found in studies that used transcranial magnetic stimulation to disrupt portions of the brain in healthy individuals (parietal lobe) Word Recognition Factors Influencing Recognition  Tachistoscope: a device designed to present stimuli for precisely controlled amounts of time  Each stimulus is followed by a post-stimulus mask often just a random number of letters such as XJDKEL. It serves to interrupt any continued processing that participants might try t do for stimulus just presented.  Recognition is also based on familiarity and recently (an effect of recency). The first exposure primes the participant for the second exposure; more specifically it is a case of repetition priming The Word-Superiority Effect  Words are easier to perceive than isolated letters referred as the word superiority effect  This effect is demonstrated with a two-alternative, forced choice procedure where letters or word presented first, a post stimulus mask and then followed by a question  Words are easier to recognize than isolated letters and participants more accurate in identifying letters if those letters appear within a word, as opposed to letters appearing all by themselves Degrees of Well-Formedness  Letters alone sho
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