CH.6: INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN ACQUIISITON AND RETRIEVAL
Learning as Preparation for Retrieval
In a study, Godden and Baddeley- half of the participants (deep sea divers) learned the test
material while underwater; half learned while sitting on land. Then within each grp, half were tested
while underwater; hal were tested on land. Retrieval advantage if the learning and test
circumstances math- better performance in the top left and bottom right cells. Scuba divers learned
materials either while on land, or while underwater. Then they were tested while on land, or
underwater. Performance was best if the divers’ circumstances at the time of test were matched to
those in place during learning.
Changes in Your Approach to the Memory Materials
Context reinstatement- improved memory performance if we re-create the context that was
in place during learning
Context has its effects because it influences how you think about materials to be remembered; it’s
these thoughts, and the perspective you had taken during learning and during the test, that matter
for memory, not the physical environment per se.
Given retrieval cues 9hints) with sound/meaning. In a study, thinking about meaning led to better
memory than sound. If participants thought about meaning at the time of learning, they did
considerably better in the test if the cues provided by the experimenter concerned meaning. The
same true for sound: they thought about sound at the time of learning, they did better with a cue
concerning the word’s sound
This label reminds us wht u encode (place into memory) is specific, not just the physical stimulus
as it was encountered but the stimulus together with its context
The Memory Network
Nodes are tied to each other via connections called associations or associative links.
Node becomes activated when it has received a strong enough input signal. Once a node ahs
been activated, it can in turn activate other nodes: energy will spread out from the just-activated
node via its association and this will activate the nodes connected to the just activated node
Activation level for the node increases when it receives activation from their neighbours.
Eventually the activation level will reach the node’s response threshold and then the node fires.
This firing has svrl effects, including the fact tht node will now itself be a source of activation sending energy to its neighbours and so activating them. In addition, firing the node will summon
attention to that node, this is what it means to find a node within the network.
Activation levels below the response threshold, so called sub-threshold activation also have an
imprtnt role to play. Activation is assumed to accumulate, so that 2 sub-threshold inputs may add
together or summate and bring the node to threshold.
Hints help activate nodes to threshold levels
There is a double input that help reach threshold levels
The information u seek in memory is prbly tied to the retrieval cue you’re given but its possible that
the information u seek receives insufficient activation frm this source. The information you seek
may also be tied in memory for thoughts tht had been triggered by the learning context (thoughts
abt being underwater). If you’re back in tht context at the time of recall, target nodes can receive a
double input (activation frm 2 diff sources) and this will help activate the target nodes
In a lexical decision task- decide if a string letters is a word
Semantic priming- priming is used to indicate tht a specific prior event will produce a state of
readiness. There are various forms of priming. The priming results from the fact tht the 2 words in
the pair are related in meaning hence this is semantic priming
Participants were given a lexical decision task involving pairs of words. In some pairs, he words
were semantically related (first word in the pair primed he second); in other pairs, the words were
unrelated (no priming). Respond word were reliably faster if the word had been primed which
shows importance of sub-threshold activation
Different Forms of Memory Testing
Recall requires memory search because you have to come up with the sought after item on your
own; you need to locate the item within memory. As a result, recall depends heavily on memory
Recognition- ur basic ur judgement on recall of the earlier episode. Info is presented to u and u
must decide whether it’s the sought after information or not.
Source memory- you don’t have any recollection of the source of ur current knowledge. Familiarity-
is a feeling in earlier encounter but u don’t know from where or how
Familiarity and Source Memory
Event can be familiar without any source memory and also possible for you to have source
memory without any familiarity Participants have been asked during a recognition test, to make remember/know distinction,
pressing one button (to indicate remember) if they actually recall the episode of encountering a
particular item, and pressing a different button (known) if they recall the encounter but jst have
broad feeling tht item must have been on the earlier list.
- Remember- heightened activity on hippocampus. Know responses- the anterior
- Certain brain areas (rhinal cortex) are especially active for learning then stimulus is likely to
seem familiar later on.
- If the rhinal cortex was activated during encoding, then stimulus was likely to seem familiar
when viewed later on. If hippocampus was activated during encoding then later on participants
were likely to recollect having seen that stimulus
Memory without Awareness
Jacoby study- 3 settings, no context setting where they saw a word and had to read it aloud. I did
nothing to encourage any thoughts abt the word’s meanings and correspondingly led to poor
explicit memory (tested via a standard recognition test). But this condition forced participants to
look at the word and led to good implicit memory. The generate condition produced the opposite
result: in this condition, participants were given an antonym for the target word and had to come
with the word on their own. This condition strongly encouraged thoughts abt meanings, and led to
good explicit memory but involved no practice in looking at the word and so led to poor implicit
memory. Third condition, context, produced intermediate results. Attention to meaning promotes
explicit memory but not implicit and perceptual context promoting implicit memory but not explicit
Word stem completion: ppl are given 4-3 letters and must prduce a word with this
beginning. Ex: CLA- claim, clatter. Ppl are more likely to offer a specific word if they’ve
encountered it recently but when tested participants show no conscious memory of their recent
encounter with that word
2 types of memories: explicit memories are those usually revealed by direct memory testing-
testing that specifically urges to rmr the past like a standard recognition task. Implicit memories are
revealed by indirect memory testing and are often manifested as priming effects. Tasks like lexical
decision, word stem completion, etc. provide indirect means of assessing memory.
Study- when two lists are presented a day apart, participants are likely to rate the made up names
as being famous
Regular encounters with strong spelling can make that spelling look correct to you, even if you
have no recollection of those encounters (implicit memory’s influence)
Implicit Memory and the Illusion of Truth Study to measure how sentence credibility is influenced by sentence familiarity. Ex: avg person in
Switzerland eats 25lb of cheese every year. Result: sentences heard before were more likely to be
accepted as rue, familiarity increased credibility.