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Chapter 6


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Dwayne Pare

CH.6: INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN ACQUIISITON AND RETRIEVAL Learning as Preparation for Retrieval Context-Dependent Learning  In a study, Godden and Baddeley- half of the participants (deep sea divers) learned the test material while underwater; half learned while sitting on land. Then within each grp, half were tested while underwater; hal were tested on land. Retrieval advantage if the learning and test circumstances math- better performance in the top left and bottom right cells. Scuba divers learned materials either while on land, or while underwater. Then they were tested while on land, or underwater. Performance was best if the divers’ circumstances at the time of test were matched to those in place during learning. Changes in Your Approach to the Memory Materials  Context reinstatement- improved memory performance if we re-create the context that was in place during learning  Context has its effects because it influences how you think about materials to be remembered; it’s these thoughts, and the perspective you had taken during learning and during the test, that matter for memory, not the physical environment per se.  Given retrieval cues 9hints) with sound/meaning. In a study, thinking about meaning led to better memory than sound. If participants thought about meaning at the time of learning, they did considerably better in the test if the cues provided by the experimenter concerned meaning. The same true for sound: they thought about sound at the time of learning, they did better with a cue concerning the word’s sound Encoding Specificity  This label reminds us wht u encode (place into memory) is specific, not just the physical stimulus as it was encountered but the stimulus together with its context The Memory Network  Nodes are tied to each other via connections called associations or associative links. Spreading Activation  Node becomes activated when it has received a strong enough input signal. Once a node ahs been activated, it can in turn activate other nodes: energy will spread out from the just-activated node via its association and this will activate the nodes connected to the just activated node  Activation level for the node increases when it receives activation from their neighbours. Eventually the activation level will reach the node’s response threshold and then the node fires. This firing has svrl effects, including the fact tht node will now itself be a source of activation sending energy to its neighbours and so activating them. In addition, firing the node will summon attention to that node, this is what it means to find a node within the network.  Activation levels below the response threshold, so called sub-threshold activation also have an imprtnt role to play. Activation is assumed to accumulate, so that 2 sub-threshold inputs may add together or summate and bring the node to threshold. Retrieval Cues  Hints help activate nodes to threshold levels  There is a double input that help reach threshold levels Context Reinstatement  The information u seek in memory is prbly tied to the retrieval cue you’re given but its possible that the information u seek receives insufficient activation frm this source. The information you seek may also be tied in memory for thoughts tht had been triggered by the learning context (thoughts abt being underwater). If you’re back in tht context at the time of recall, target nodes can receive a double input (activation frm 2 diff sources) and this will help activate the target nodes Semantic Priming  In a lexical decision task- decide if a string letters is a word  Semantic priming- priming is used to indicate tht a specific prior event will produce a state of readiness. There are various forms of priming. The priming results from the fact tht the 2 words in the pair are related in meaning hence this is semantic priming  Participants were given a lexical decision task involving pairs of words. In some pairs, he words were semantically related (first word in the pair primed he second); in other pairs, the words were unrelated (no priming). Respond word were reliably faster if the word had been primed which shows importance of sub-threshold activation Different Forms of Memory Testing  Recall requires memory search because you have to come up with the sought after item on your own; you need to locate the item within memory. As a result, recall depends heavily on memory connections  Recognition- ur basic ur judgement on recall of the earlier episode. Info is presented to u and u must decide whether it’s the sought after information or not.  Source memory- you don’t have any recollection of the source of ur current knowledge. Familiarity- is a feeling in earlier encounter but u don’t know from where or how Familiarity and Source Memory  Event can be familiar without any source memory and also possible for you to have source memory without any familiarity  Participants have been asked during a recognition test, to make remember/know distinction, pressing one button (to indicate remember) if they actually recall the episode of encountering a particular item, and pressing a different button (known) if they recall the encounter but jst have broad feeling tht item must have been on the earlier list. - Remember- heightened activity on hippocampus. Know responses- the anterior parahippocampus - Certain brain areas (rhinal cortex) are especially active for learning then stimulus is likely to seem familiar later on. - If the rhinal cortex was activated during encoding, then stimulus was likely to seem familiar when viewed later on. If hippocampus was activated during encoding then later on participants were likely to recollect having seen that stimulus Implicit memory Memory without Awareness  Jacoby study- 3 settings, no context setting where they saw a word and had to read it aloud. I did nothing to encourage any thoughts abt the word’s meanings and correspondingly led to poor explicit memory (tested via a standard recognition test). But this condition forced participants to look at the word and led to good implicit memory. The generate condition produced the opposite result: in this condition, participants were given an antonym for the target word and had to come with the word on their own. This condition strongly encouraged thoughts abt meanings, and led to good explicit memory but involved no practice in looking at the word and so led to poor implicit memory. Third condition, context, produced intermediate results. Attention to meaning promotes explicit memory but not implicit and perceptual context promoting implicit memory but not explicit  Word stem completion: ppl are given 4-3 letters and must prduce a word with this beginning. Ex: CLA- claim, clatter. Ppl are more likely to offer a specific word if they’ve encountered it recently but when tested participants show no conscious memory of their recent encounter with that word  2 types of memories: explicit memories are those usually revealed by direct memory testing- testing that specifically urges to rmr the past like a standard recognition task. Implicit memories are revealed by indirect memory testing and are often manifested as priming effects. Tasks like lexical decision, word stem completion, etc. provide indirect means of assessing memory. False Fame  Study- when two lists are presented a day apart, participants are likely to rate the made up names as being famous  Regular encounters with strong spelling can make that spelling look correct to you, even if you have no recollection of those encounters (implicit memory’s influence) Implicit Memory and the Illusion of Truth  Study to measure how sentence credibility is influenced by sentence familiarity. Ex: avg person in Switzerland eats 25lb of cheese every year. Result: sentences heard before were more likely to be accepted as rue, familiarity increased credibility.  Statem
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